I didn’t find the equivalent on Linux now.
The feature is only available in desktop and Android clients after Developer Preview has been enabled. For more details, please refer to: https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoftteams/platform/tabs/how-to/developer-tools.
You can give a feedback in the Microsoft Teams user voice. The link is https://microsoftteams.uservoice.com/forums/555103-public/suggestions/39708526-open-devtools-on-teams-for-linux. Your kindly feedback will improve your experience with the product.