Maybe this worked at one time, but I just tested and it does not appear to work with the current versions. Sharing is just not available at all on the Linux side, and "Give Control" from Windows does not work.
Linux version: 1.3.00.30857 (64-bit) [teams-insiders release]
Windows version: 1.3.00.30866 (64-bit)
I opened the settings file to verify that the setting was enabled. I have restarted the Linux client multiple times since.
I've been "continuously paying attention" to this client for about a year now. Microsoft has not made any noticeable improvement to the Linux client in that time. It appears to be nothing more than a thinly-wrapped Electron version of the web client. Other cross-platform collaboration tools have had remote control capabilities on Linux for years before Teams was even released. At this point I'm firmly convinced that no one at Microsoft is working on adding any of the missing functionality to Linux, and we simply won't get it unless they decide to add it to the web interface.