ASP.NET Core Blazor data binding

Note

This isn't the latest version of this article. For the current release, see the ASP.NET Core 8.0 version of this article.

This article explains data binding features for Razor components and DOM elements in Blazor apps.

Throughout this article, the terms server/server-side and client/client-side are used to distinguish locations where app code executes:

  • Server/server-side: Interactive server-side rendering (interactive SSR) of a Blazor Web App.
  • Client/client-side
    • Client-side rendering (CSR) of a Blazor Web App.
    • A Blazor WebAssembly app.

Documentation component examples usually don't configure an interactive render mode with an @rendermode directive in the component's definition file (.razor):

  • In a Blazor Web App, the component must have an interactive render mode applied, either in the component's definition file or inherited from a parent component. For more information, see ASP.NET Core Blazor render modes.

  • In a standalone Blazor WebAssembly app, the components function as shown and don't require a render mode because components always run interactively on WebAssembly in a Blazor WebAssembly app.

When using the Interactive WebAssembly or Interactive Auto render modes, component code sent to the client can be decompiled and inspected. Don't place private code, app secrets, or other sensitive information in client-rendered components.

  • Server/server-side
    • The Server project of a hosted Blazor WebAssembly app.
    • A Blazor Server app.
  • Client/client-side
    • The Client project of a hosted Blazor WebAssembly app.
    • A Blazor WebAssembly app.

For guidance on the purpose and locations of files and folders, see ASP.NET Core Blazor project structure, which also describes the location of the Blazor start script and the location of <head> and <body> content.

The best way to run the demonstration code is to download the BlazorSample_{PROJECT TYPE} sample apps from the Blazor samples GitHub repository that matches the version of .NET that you're targeting. Not all of the documentation examples are currently in the sample apps, but an effort is currently underway to move most of the .NET 8 article examples into the .NET 8 sample apps. This work will be completed in the first quarter of 2024.

Binding features

Razor components provide data binding features with the @bind Razor directive attribute with a field, property, or Razor expression value.

The following example binds:

  • An <input> element value to the C# inputValue field.
  • A second <input> element value to the C# InputValue property.

When an <input> element loses focus, its bound field or property is updated.

Bind.razor:

@page "/bind"

<PageTitle>Bind</PageTitle>

<h1>Bind Example</h1>

<p>
    <label>
        inputValue: 
        <input @bind="inputValue" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <label>
        InputValue: 
        <input @bind="InputValue" />
    </label>
</p>

<ul>
    <li><code>inputValue</code>: @inputValue</li>
    <li><code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue</li>
</ul>

@code {
    private string? inputValue;

    private string? InputValue { get; set; }
}
@page "/bind"

<p>
    <input @bind="inputValue" />
</p>

<p>
    <input @bind="InputValue" />
</p>

<ul>
    <li><code>inputValue</code>: @inputValue</li>
    <li><code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue</li>
</ul>

@code {
    private string? inputValue;

    private string? InputValue { get; set; }
}
@page "/bind"

<p>
    <input @bind="inputValue" />
</p>

<p>
    <input @bind="InputValue" />
</p>

<ul>
    <li><code>inputValue</code>: @inputValue</li>
    <li><code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue</li>
</ul>

@code {
    private string? inputValue;

    private string? InputValue { get; set; }
}
@page "/bind"

<p>
    <input @bind="inputValue" />
</p>

<p>
    <input @bind="InputValue" />
</p>

<ul>
    <li><code>inputValue</code>: @inputValue</li>
    <li><code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue</li>
</ul>

@code {
    private string inputValue;

    private string InputValue { get; set; }
}
@page "/bind"

<p>
    <input @bind="inputValue" />
</p>

<p>
    <input @bind="InputValue" />
</p>

<ul>
    <li><code>inputValue</code>: @inputValue</li>
    <li><code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue</li>
</ul>

@code {
    private string inputValue;

    private string InputValue { get; set; }
}

The text box is updated in the UI only when the component is rendered, not in response to changing the field's or property's value. Since components render themselves after event handler code executes, field and property updates are usually reflected in the UI immediately after an event handler is triggered.

As a demonstration of how data binding composes in HTML, the following example binds the InputValue property to the second <input> element's value and onchange attributes (change). The second <input> element in the following example is a concept demonstration and isn't meant to suggest how you should bind data in Razor components.

BindTheory.razor:

@page "/bind-theory"

<PageTitle>Bind Theory</PageTitle>

<h1>Bind Theory Example</h1>

<p>
    <label>
        Normal Blazor binding: 
        <input @bind="InputValue" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <label>
        Demonstration of equivalent HTML binding: 
        <input value="@InputValue"
            @onchange="@((ChangeEventArgs __e) => InputValue = __e?.Value?.ToString())" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue
</p>

@code {
    private string? InputValue { get; set; }
}
@page "/bind-theory"

<p>
    <label>
        Normal Blazor binding: 
        <input @bind="InputValue" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <label>
        Demonstration of equivalent HTML binding: 
        <input value="@InputValue"
            @onchange="@((ChangeEventArgs __e) => InputValue = __e?.Value?.ToString())" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue
</p>

@code {
    private string? InputValue { get; set; }
}
@page "/bind-theory"

<p>
    <label>
        Normal Blazor binding: 
        <input @bind="InputValue" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <label>
        Demonstration of equivalent HTML binding: 
        <input value="@InputValue"
            @onchange="@((ChangeEventArgs __e) => InputValue = __e?.Value?.ToString())" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue
</p>

@code {
    private string? InputValue { get; set; }
}
@page "/bind-theory"

<p>
    <label>
        Normal Blazor binding: 
        <input @bind="InputValue" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <label>
        Demonstration of equivalent HTML binding: 
        <input value="@InputValue"
            @onchange="@((ChangeEventArgs __e) => InputValue = __e.Value.ToString())" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue
</p>

@code {
    private string InputValue { get; set; }
}
@page "/bind-theory"

<p>
    <label>
        Normal Blazor binding: 
        <input @bind="InputValue" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <label>
        Demonstration of equivalent HTML binding: 
        <input value="@InputValue"
            @onchange="@((ChangeEventArgs __e) => InputValue = __e.Value.ToString())" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue
</p>

@code {
    private string InputValue { get; set; }
}

When the BindTheory component is rendered, the value of the HTML demonstration <input> element comes from the InputValue property. When the user enters a value in the text box and changes element focus, the onchange event is fired and the InputValue property is set to the changed value. In reality, code execution is more complex because @bind handles cases where type conversions are performed. In general, @bind associates the current value of an expression with the value attribute of the <input> and handles changes using the registered handler.

Bind a property or field on other DOM events by including an @bind:event="{EVENT}" attribute with a DOM event for the {EVENT} placeholder. The following example binds the InputValue property to the <input> element's value when the element's oninput event (input) is triggered. Unlike the onchange event (change), which fires when the element loses focus, oninput (input) fires when the value of the text box changes.

Page/BindEvent.razor:

@page "/bind-event"

<PageTitle>Bind Event</PageTitle>

<h1>Bind Event Example</h1>

<p>
    <label>
        InputValue: 
        <input @bind="InputValue" @bind:event="oninput" />
    </label>
    
</p>

<p>
    <code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue
</p>

@code {
    private string? InputValue { get; set; }
}
@page "/bind-event"

<p>
    <input @bind="InputValue" @bind:event="oninput" />
</p>

<p>
    <code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue
</p>

@code {
    private string? InputValue { get; set; }
}
@page "/bind-event"

<p>
    <input @bind="InputValue" @bind:event="oninput" />
</p>

<p>
    <code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue
</p>

@code {
    private string? InputValue { get; set; }
}
@page "/bind-event"

<p>
    <input @bind="InputValue" @bind:event="oninput" />
</p>

<p>
    <code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue
</p>

@code {
    private string InputValue { get; set; }
}
@page "/bind-event"

<p>
    <input @bind="InputValue" @bind:event="oninput" />
</p>

<p>
    <code>InputValue</code>: @InputValue
</p>

@code {
    private string InputValue { get; set; }
}

Razor attribute binding is case-sensitive:

  • @bind and @bind:event are valid.
  • @Bind/@Bind:Event (capital letters B and E) or @BIND/@BIND:EVENT (all capital letters) are invalid.

To execute asynchronous logic after binding, use @bind:after="{EVENT}" with a DOM event for the {EVENT} placeholder. An assigned C# method isn't executed until the bound value is assigned synchronously.

Using an event callback parameter (EventCallback/EventCallback<T>) with @bind:after isn't supported. Instead, pass a method that returns an Action or Task to @bind:after.

In the following example:

  • The <input> element's value is bound to the value of searchText synchronously.
  • After each keystroke (onchange event) in the field, the PerformSearch method executes asynchronously.
  • PerformSearch calls a service with an asynchronous method (FetchAsync) to return search results.
@inject ISearchService SearchService

<input @bind="searchText" @bind:after="PerformSearch" />

@code {
    private string? searchText;
    private string[]? searchResult;

    private async Task PerformSearch()
    {
        searchResult = await SearchService.FetchAsync(searchText);
    }
}

Additional examples

BindAfter.razor:

@page "/bind-after"
@using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Components.Forms

<h1>Bind After Examples</h1>

<h2>Elements</h2>

<input type="text" @bind="text" @bind:after="() => { }" />

<input type="text" @bind="text" @bind:after="After" />

<input type="text" @bind="text" @bind:after="AfterAsync" />

<h2>Components</h2>

<InputText @bind-Value="text" @bind-Value:after="() => { }" />

<InputText @bind-Value="text" @bind-Value:after="After" />

<InputText @bind-Value="text" @bind-Value:after="AfterAsync" />

@code {
    private string text = "";

    private void After() {}
    private Task AfterAsync() { return Task.CompletedTask; }
}

For more information on the InputText component, see ASP.NET Core Blazor input components.

Components support two-way data binding by defining a pair of parameters:

  • @bind:get: Specifies the value to bind.
  • @bind:set: Specifies a callback for when the value changes.

The @bind:get and @bind:set modifiers are always used together.

Using an event callback parameter with @bind:set ([Parameter] public EventCallback<string> ValueChanged { get; set; }) isn't supported. Instead, pass a method that returns an Action or Task to @bind:set.

Examples

BindGetSet.razor:

@page "/bind-get-set"
@using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Components.Forms

<h1>Bind Get Set Examples</h1>

<h2>Elements</h2>

<input type="text" @bind:get="text" @bind:set="(value) => { text = value; }" />
<input type="text" @bind:get="text" @bind:set="Set" />
<input type="text" @bind:get="text" @bind:set="SetAsync" />

<h2>Components</h2>

<InputText @bind-Value:get="text" @bind-Value:set="(value) => { text = value; }" />
<InputText @bind-Value:get="text" @bind-Value:set="Set" />
<InputText @bind-Value:get="text" @bind-Value:set="SetAsync" />

@code {
    private string text = "";

    private void Set(string value)
    {
        text = value;
    }

    private Task SetAsync(string value)
    {
        text = value;
        return Task.CompletedTask;
    }
}

For more information on the InputText component, see ASP.NET Core Blazor input components.

For another example use of @bind:get and @bind:set, see the Bind across more than two components section later in this article.

Razor attribute binding is case-sensitive:

  • @bind, @bind:event, and @bind:after are valid.
  • @Bind/@bind:Event/@bind:aftEr (capital letters) or @BIND/@BIND:EVENT/@BIND:AFTER (all capital letters) are invalid.

Use @bind:get/@bind:set modifiers and avoid event handlers for two-way data binding

Two-way data binding isn't possible to implement with an event handler. Use @bind:get/@bind:set modifiers for two-way data binding.

Consider the following dysfunctional approach for two-way data binding using an event handler:

<p>
    <input value="@inputValue" @oninput="OnInput" />
</p>

<p>
    <code>inputValue</code>: @inputValue
</p>

@code {
    private string? inputValue;

    private void OnInput(ChangeEventArgs args)
    {
        var newValue = args.Value?.ToString() ?? string.Empty;

        inputValue = newValue.Length > 4 ? "Long!" : newValue;
    }
}

The OnInput event handler updates the value of inputValue to Long! after a fourth character is provided. However, the user can continue adding characters to the element value in the UI. The value of inputValue isn't bound back to the element's value with each keystroke. The preceding example is only capable of one-way data binding.

The reason for this behavior is that Blazor isn't aware that your code intends to modify the value of inputValue in the event handler. Blazor doesn't try to force DOM element values and .NET variable values to match unless they're bound with @bind syntax. In earlier versions of Blazor, two-way data binding is implemented by binding the element to a property and controlling the property's value with its setter. In ASP.NET Core in .NET 7 or later, @bind:get/@bind:set modifier syntax is used to implement two-way data binding, as the next example demonstrates.

Consider the following correct approach using @bind:get/@bind:set for two-way data binding:

<p>
    <input @bind:event="oninput" @bind:get="inputValue" @bind:set="OnInput" />
</p>

<p>
    <code>inputValue</code>: @inputValue
</p>

@code {
    private string? inputValue;

    private void OnInput(string value)
    {
        var newValue = value ?? string.Empty;

        inputValue = newValue.Length > 4 ? "Long!" : newValue;
    }
}

Using @bind:get/@bind:set modifiers both controls the underlying value of inputValue via @bind:set and binds the value of inputValue to the element's value via @bind:get. The preceding example demonstrates the correct approach for implementing two-way data binding.

Binding to a property with C# get and set accessors

C# get and set accessors can be used to create custom binding format behavior, as the following DecimalBinding component demonstrates. The component binds a positive or negative decimal with up to three decimal places to an <input> element by way of a string property (DecimalValue).

DecimalBinding.razor:

@page "/decimal-binding"
@using System.Globalization

<PageTitle>Decimal Binding</PageTitle>

<h1>Decimal Binding Example</h1>

<p>
    <label>
        Decimal value (±0.000 format):
        <input @bind="DecimalValue" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>decimalValue</code>: @decimalValue
</p>

@code {
    private decimal decimalValue = 1.1M;
    private NumberStyles style = 
        NumberStyles.AllowDecimalPoint | NumberStyles.AllowLeadingSign;
    private CultureInfo culture = CultureInfo.CreateSpecificCulture("en-US");

    private string DecimalValue
    {
        get => decimalValue.ToString("0.000", culture);
        set
        {
            if (Decimal.TryParse(value, style, culture, out var number))
            {
                decimalValue = Math.Round(number, 3);
            }
        }
    }
}
@page "/decimal-binding"
@using System.Globalization

<p>
    <label>
        Decimal value (±0.000 format):
        <input @bind="DecimalValue" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>decimalValue</code>: @decimalValue
</p>

@code {
    private decimal decimalValue = 1.1M;
    private NumberStyles style = 
        NumberStyles.AllowDecimalPoint | NumberStyles.AllowLeadingSign;
    private CultureInfo culture = CultureInfo.CreateSpecificCulture("en-US");

    private string DecimalValue
    {
        get => decimalValue.ToString("0.000", culture);
        set
        {
            if (Decimal.TryParse(value, style, culture, out var number))
            {
                decimalValue = Math.Round(number, 3);
            }
        }
    }
}
@page "/decimal-binding"
@using System.Globalization

<p>
    <label>
        Decimal value (±0.000 format):
        <input @bind="DecimalValue" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>decimalValue</code>: @decimalValue
</p>

@code {
    private decimal decimalValue = 1.1M;
    private NumberStyles style = 
        NumberStyles.AllowDecimalPoint | NumberStyles.AllowLeadingSign;
    private CultureInfo culture = CultureInfo.CreateSpecificCulture("en-US");

    private string DecimalValue
    {
        get => decimalValue.ToString("0.000", culture);
        set
        {
            if (Decimal.TryParse(value, style, culture, out var number))
            {
                decimalValue = Math.Round(number, 3);
            }
        }
    }
}
@page "/decimal-binding"
@using System.Globalization

<p>
    <label>
        Decimal value (±0.000 format):
        <input @bind="DecimalValue" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>decimalValue</code>: @decimalValue
</p>

@code {
    private decimal decimalValue = 1.1M;
    private NumberStyles style = 
        NumberStyles.AllowDecimalPoint | NumberStyles.AllowLeadingSign;
    private CultureInfo culture = CultureInfo.CreateSpecificCulture("en-US");

    private string DecimalValue
    {
        get => decimalValue.ToString("0.000", culture);
        set
        {
            if (Decimal.TryParse(value, style, culture, out var number))
            {
                decimalValue = Math.Round(number, 3);
            }
        }
    }
}
@page "/decimal-binding"
@using System.Globalization

<p>
    <label>
        Decimal value (±0.000 format):
        <input @bind="DecimalValue" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>decimalValue</code>: @decimalValue
</p>

@code {
    private decimal decimalValue = 1.1M;
    private NumberStyles style = 
        NumberStyles.AllowDecimalPoint | NumberStyles.AllowLeadingSign;
    private CultureInfo culture = CultureInfo.CreateSpecificCulture("en-US");

    private string DecimalValue
    {
        get => decimalValue.ToString("0.000", culture);
        set
        {
            if (Decimal.TryParse(value, style, culture, out var number))
            {
                decimalValue = Math.Round(number, 3);
            }
        }
    }
}

Note

Two-way binding to a property with get/set accessors requires discarding the Task returned by EventCallback.InvokeAsync. For two-way data binding, we recommend using @bind:get/@bind:set modifiers. For more information, see the @bind:get/@bind:set guidance in the earlier in this article.

Note

Two-way binding to a property with get/set accessors requires discarding the Task returned by EventCallback.InvokeAsync. For two-way data binding in ASP.NET Core in .NET 7 or later, we recommend using @bind:get/@bind:set modifiers, which are described in 7.0 or later versions of this article.

Multiple option selection with <select> elements

Binding supports multiple option selection with <select> elements. The @onchange event provides an array of the selected elements via event arguments (ChangeEventArgs). The value must be bound to an array type.

BindMultipleInput.razor:

@page "/bind-multiple-input"

<h1>Bind Multiple <code>input</code>Example</h1>

<p>
    <label>
        Select one or more cars: 
        <select @onchange="SelectedCarsChanged" multiple>
            <option value="audi">Audi</option>
            <option value="jeep">Jeep</option>
            <option value="opel">Opel</option>
            <option value="saab">Saab</option>
            <option value="volvo">Volvo</option>
        </select>
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    Selected Cars: @string.Join(", ", SelectedCars)
</p>

<p>
    <label>
        Select one or more cities: 
        <select @bind="SelectedCities" multiple>
            <option value="bal">Baltimore</option>
            <option value="la">Los Angeles</option>
            <option value="pdx">Portland</option>
            <option value="sf">San Francisco</option>
            <option value="sea">Seattle</option>
        </select>
    </label>
</p>

<span>
    Selected Cities: @string.Join(", ", SelectedCities)
</span>

@code {
    public string[] SelectedCars { get; set; } = new string[] { };
    public string[] SelectedCities { get; set; } = new[] { "bal", "sea" };

    private void SelectedCarsChanged(ChangeEventArgs e)
    {
        if (e.Value is not null)
        {
            SelectedCars = (string[])e.Value;
        }
    }
}

For information on how empty strings and null values are handled in data binding, see the Binding <select> element options to C# object null values section.

Binding <select> element options to C# object null values

There's no sensible way to represent a <select> element option value as a C# object null value, because:

  • HTML attributes can't have null values. The closest equivalent to null in HTML is absence of the HTML value attribute from the <option> element.
  • When selecting an <option> with no value attribute, the browser treats the value as the text content of that <option>'s element.

The Blazor framework doesn't attempt to suppress the default behavior because it would involve:

  • Creating a chain of special-case workarounds in the framework.
  • Breaking changes to current framework behavior.

The most plausible null equivalent in HTML is an empty string value. The Blazor framework handles null to empty string conversions for two-way binding to a <select>'s value.

Unparsable values

When a user provides an unparsable value to a data-bound element, the unparsable value is automatically reverted to its previous value when the bind event is triggered.

Consider the following component, where an <input> element is bound to an int type with an initial value of 123.

UnparsableValues.razor:

@page "/unparsable-values"

<PageTitle>Unparsable Values</PageTitle>

<h1>Unparsable Values Example</h1>

<p>
    <label>
        inputValue: 
        <input @bind="inputValue" />
    </label>
    
</p>

<p>
    <code>inputValue</code>: @inputValue
</p>

@code {
    private int inputValue = 123;
}
@page "/unparseable-values"

<p>
    <input @bind="inputValue" />
</p>

<p>
    <code>inputValue</code>: @inputValue
</p>

@code {
    private int inputValue = 123;
}
@page "/unparseable-values"

<p>
    <input @bind="inputValue" />
</p>

<p>
    <code>inputValue</code>: @inputValue
</p>

@code {
    private int inputValue = 123;
}
@page "/unparseable-values"

<p>
    <input @bind="inputValue" />
</p>

<p>
    <code>inputValue</code>: @inputValue
</p>

@code {
    private int inputValue = 123;
}
@page "/unparseable-values"

<p>
    <input @bind="inputValue" />
</p>

<p>
    <code>inputValue</code>: @inputValue
</p>

@code {
    private int inputValue = 123;
}

By default, binding applies to the element's onchange event. If the user updates the value of the text box's entry to 123.45 and changes the focus, the element's value is reverted to 123 when onchange fires. When the value 123.45 is rejected in favor of the original value of 123, the user understands that their value wasn't accepted.

For the oninput event (@bind:event="oninput"), a value reversion occurs after any keystroke that introduces an unparsable value. When targeting the oninput event with an int-bound type, a user is prevented from typing a dot (.) character. A dot (.) character is immediately removed, so the user receives immediate feedback that only whole numbers are permitted. There are scenarios where reverting the value on the oninput event isn't ideal, such as when the user should be allowed to clear an unparsable <input> value. Alternatives include:

  • Don't use the oninput event. Use the default onchange event, where an invalid value isn't reverted until the element loses focus.
  • Bind to a nullable type, such as int? or string and either use @bind:get/@bind:set modifiers (described earlier in this article) or bind to a property with custom get and set accessor logic to handle invalid entries.
  • Use a form validation component, such as InputNumber<TValue> or InputDate<TValue>. Form validation components provide built-in support to manage invalid inputs. Form validation components:
    • Permit the user to provide invalid input and receive validation errors on the associated EditContext.
    • Display validation errors in the UI without interfering with the user entering additional webform data.

Format strings

Data binding works with a single DateTime format string using @bind:format="{FORMAT STRING}", where the {FORMAT STRING} placeholder is the format string. Other format expressions, such as currency or number formats, aren't available at this time but might be added in a future release.

DateBinding.razor:

@page "/date-binding"

<PageTitle>Date Binding</PageTitle>

<h1>Date Binding Example</h1>

<p>
    <label>
        <code>yyyy-MM-dd</code> format:
        <input @bind="startDate" @bind:format="yyyy-MM-dd" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>startDate</code>: @startDate
</p>

@code {
    private DateTime startDate = new(2020, 1, 1);
}
@page "/date-binding"

<p>
    <label>
        <code>yyyy-MM-dd</code> format:
        <input @bind="startDate" @bind:format="yyyy-MM-dd" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>startDate</code>: @startDate
</p>

@code {
    private DateTime startDate = new(2020, 1, 1);
}
@page "/date-binding"

<p>
    <label>
        <code>yyyy-MM-dd</code> format:
        <input @bind="startDate" @bind:format="yyyy-MM-dd" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>startDate</code>: @startDate
</p>

@code {
    private DateTime startDate = new(2020, 1, 1);
}
@page "/date-binding"

<p>
    <label>
        <code>yyyy-MM-dd</code> format:
        <input @bind="startDate" @bind:format="yyyy-MM-dd" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>startDate</code>: @startDate
</p>

@code {
    private DateTime startDate = new(2020, 1, 1);
}
@page "/date-binding"

<p>
    <label>
        <code>yyyy-MM-dd</code> format:
        <input @bind="startDate" @bind:format="yyyy-MM-dd" />
    </label>
</p>

<p>
    <code>startDate</code>: @startDate
</p>

@code {
    private DateTime startDate = new DateTime(2020, 1, 1);
}

In the preceding code, the <input> element's field type (type attribute) defaults to text.

Nullable System.DateTime and System.DateTimeOffset are supported:

private DateTime? date;
private DateTimeOffset? dateOffset;

Specifying a format for the date field type isn't recommended because Blazor has built-in support to format dates. In spite of the recommendation, only use the yyyy-MM-dd date format for binding to function correctly if a format is supplied with the date field type:

<input type="date" @bind="startDate" @bind:format="yyyy-MM-dd">

Binding with component parameters

A common scenario is binding a property of a child component to a property in its parent component. This scenario is called a chained bind because multiple levels of binding occur simultaneously.

Component parameters permit binding properties of a parent component with @bind-{PROPERTY} syntax, where the {PROPERTY} placeholder is the property to bind.

You can't implement chained binds with @bind syntax in the child component. An event handler and value must be specified separately to support updating the property in the parent from the child component.

The parent component still leverages the @bind syntax to set up the databinding with the child component.

The following ChildBind component has a Year component parameter and an EventCallback<TValue>. By convention, the EventCallback<TValue> for the parameter must be named as the component parameter name with a "Changed" suffix. The naming syntax is {PARAMETER NAME}Changed, where the {PARAMETER NAME} placeholder is the parameter name. In the following example, the EventCallback<TValue> is named YearChanged.

EventCallback.InvokeAsync invokes the delegate associated with the binding with the provided argument and dispatches an event notification for the changed property.

ChildBind.razor:

<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:18rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">ChildBind Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            Child <code>Year</code>: @Year
        </p>
        <button @onclick="UpdateYearFromChild">Update Year from Child</button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private Random r = new();

    [Parameter]
    public int Year { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<int> YearChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task UpdateYearFromChild()
    {
        await YearChanged.InvokeAsync(r.Next(1950, 2021));
    }
}
<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:18rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">ChildBind Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            Child <code>Year</code>: @Year
        </p>
        <button @onclick="UpdateYearFromChild">Update Year from Child</button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private Random r = new();

    [Parameter]
    public int Year { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<int> YearChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task UpdateYearFromChild()
    {
        await YearChanged.InvokeAsync(r.Next(1950, 2021));
    }
}
<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:18rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">ChildBind Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            Child <code>Year</code>: @Year
        </p>
        <button @onclick="UpdateYearFromChild">Update Year from Child</button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private Random r = new();

    [Parameter]
    public int Year { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<int> YearChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task UpdateYearFromChild()
    {
        await YearChanged.InvokeAsync(r.Next(1950, 2021));
    }
}
<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:18rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">ChildBind Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            Child <code>Year</code>: @Year
        </p>
        <button @onclick="UpdateYearFromChild">Update Year from Child</button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private Random r = new();

    [Parameter]
    public int Year { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<int> YearChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task UpdateYearFromChild()
    {
        await YearChanged.InvokeAsync(r.Next(1950, 2021));
    }
}
<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:18rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">ChildBind Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            Child <code>Year</code>: @Year
        </p>
        <button @onclick="UpdateYearFromChild">Update Year from Child</button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private Random r = new Random();

    [Parameter]
    public int Year { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<int> YearChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task UpdateYearFromChild()
    {
        await YearChanged.InvokeAsync(r.Next(1950, 2021));
    }
}

For more information on events and EventCallback<TValue>, see the EventCallback section of the ASP.NET Core Blazor event handling article.

In the following Parent1 component, the year field is bound to the Year parameter of the child component. The Year parameter is bindable because it has a companion YearChanged event that matches the type of the Year parameter.

Parent1.razor:

@page "/parent-1"

<PageTitle>Parent 1</PageTitle>

<h1>Parent Example 1</h1>

<p>Parent <code>year</code>: @year</p>

<button @onclick="UpdateYear">Update Parent <code>year</code></button>

<ChildBind @bind-Year="year" />

@code {
    private Random r = new();
    private int year = 1979;

    private void UpdateYear()
    {
        year = r.Next(1950, 2021);
    }
}
@page "/parent-1"

<h1>Parent Component</h1>

<p>Parent <code>year</code>: @year</p>

<button @onclick="UpdateYear">Update Parent <code>year</code></button>

<ChildBind @bind-Year="year" />

@code {
    private Random r = new();
    private int year = 1979;

    private void UpdateYear()
    {
        year = r.Next(1950, 2021);
    }
}
@page "/parent-1"

<h1>Parent Component</h1>

<p>Parent <code>year</code>: @year</p>

<button @onclick="UpdateYear">Update Parent <code>year</code></button>

<ChildBind @bind-Year="year" />

@code {
    private Random r = new();
    private int year = 1979;

    private void UpdateYear()
    {
        year = r.Next(1950, 2021);
    }
}
@page "/parent-1"

<h1>Parent Component</h1>

<p>Parent <code>year</code>: @year</p>

<button @onclick="UpdateYear">Update Parent <code>year</code></button>

<ChildBind @bind-Year="year" />

@code {
    private Random r = new();
    private int year = 1979;

    private void UpdateYear()
    {
        year = r.Next(1950, 2021);
    }
}
@page "/parent-1"

<h1>Parent Component</h1>

<p>Parent <code>year</code>: @year</p>

<button @onclick="UpdateYear">Update Parent <code>year</code></button>

<ChildBind @bind-Year="year" />

@code {
    private Random r = new Random();
    private int year = 1979;

    private void UpdateYear()
    {
        year = r.Next(1950, 2021);
    }
}

Component parameter binding can also trigger @bind:after events. In the following example, the YearUpdated method executes asynchronously after binding the Year component parameter.

<ChildBind @bind-Year="year" @bind-Year:after="YearUpdated" />

@code {
    ...

    private async Task YearUpdated()
    {
        ... = await ...;
    }
}

By convention, a property can be bound to a corresponding event handler by including an @bind-{PROPERTY}:event attribute assigned to the handler, where the {PROPERTY} placeholder is the property. <ChildBind @bind-Year="year" /> is equivalent to writing:

<ChildBind @bind-Year="year" @bind-Year:event="YearChanged" />

In a more sophisticated and real-world example, the following PasswordEntry component:

  • Sets an <input> element's value to a password field.
  • Exposes changes of a Password property to a parent component with an EventCallback that passes in the current value of the child's password field as its argument.
  • Uses the onclick event to trigger the ToggleShowPassword method. For more information, see ASP.NET Core Blazor event handling.

PasswordEntry.razor:

<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:22rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">Password Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            <label>
                Password:
                <input @oninput="OnPasswordChanged"
                       required
                       type="@(showPassword ? "text" : "password")"
                       value="@password" />
            </label>
        </p>
        <button class="btn btn-primary" @onclick="ToggleShowPassword">
            Show password
        </button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private bool showPassword;
    private string? password;

    [Parameter]
    public string? Password { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> PasswordChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task OnPasswordChanged(ChangeEventArgs e)
    {
        password = e?.Value?.ToString();

        await PasswordChanged.InvokeAsync(password);
    }

    private void ToggleShowPassword()
    {
        showPassword = !showPassword;
    }
}
<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:22rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">Password Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            <label>
                Password:
                <input @oninput="OnPasswordChanged"
                       required
                       type="@(showPassword ? "text" : "password")"
                       value="@password" />
            </label>
        </p>
        <button class="btn btn-primary" @onclick="ToggleShowPassword">
            Show password
        </button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private bool showPassword;
    private string? password;

    [Parameter]
    public string? Password { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> PasswordChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task OnPasswordChanged(ChangeEventArgs e)
    {
        password = e?.Value?.ToString();

        await PasswordChanged.InvokeAsync(password);
    }

    private void ToggleShowPassword()
    {
        showPassword = !showPassword;
    }
}
<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:22rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">Password Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            <label>
                Password:
                <input @oninput="OnPasswordChanged"
                       required
                       type="@(showPassword ? "text" : "password")"
                       value="@password" />
            </label>
        </p>
        <button class="btn btn-primary" @onclick="ToggleShowPassword">
            Show password
        </button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private bool showPassword;
    private string? password;

    [Parameter]
    public string? Password { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> PasswordChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task OnPasswordChanged(ChangeEventArgs e)
    {
        password = e?.Value?.ToString();

        await PasswordChanged.InvokeAsync(password);
    }

    private void ToggleShowPassword()
    {
        showPassword = !showPassword;
    }
}
<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:22rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">Password Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            <label>
                Password:
                <input @oninput="OnPasswordChanged"
                       required
                       type="@(showPassword ? "text" : "password")"
                       value="@password" />
            </label>
        </p>
        <button class="btn btn-primary" @onclick="ToggleShowPassword">
            Show password
        </button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private bool showPassword;
    private string password;

    [Parameter]
    public string Password { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> PasswordChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task OnPasswordChanged(ChangeEventArgs e)
    {
        password = e.Value.ToString();

        await PasswordChanged.InvokeAsync(password);
    }

    private void ToggleShowPassword()
    {
        showPassword = !showPassword;
    }
}
<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:22rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">Password Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            <label>
                Password:
                <input @oninput="OnPasswordChanged"
                       required
                       type="@(showPassword ? "text" : "password")"
                       value="@password" />
            </label>
        </p>
        <button class="btn btn-primary" @onclick="ToggleShowPassword">
            Show password
        </button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private bool showPassword;
    private string password;

    [Parameter]
    public string Password { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> PasswordChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task OnPasswordChanged(ChangeEventArgs e)
    {
        password = e.Value.ToString();

        await PasswordChanged.InvokeAsync(password);
    }

    private void ToggleShowPassword()
    {
        showPassword = !showPassword;
    }
}

The PasswordEntry component is used in another component, such as the following PasswordBinding component example.

PasswordBinding.razor:

@page "/password-binding"

<PageTitle>Password Binding</PageTitle>

<h1>Password Binding Example</h1>

<PasswordEntry @bind-Password="password" />

<p>
    <code>password</code>: @password
</p>

@code {
    private string password = "Not set";
}
@page "/password-binding"

<h1>Password Binding</h1>

<PasswordEntry @bind-Password="password" />

<p>
    <code>password</code>: @password
</p>

@code {
    private string password = "Not set";
}
@page "/password-binding"

<h1>Password Binding</h1>

<PasswordEntry @bind-Password="password" />

<p>
    <code>password</code>: @password
</p>

@code {
    private string password = "Not set";
}
@page "/password-binding"

<h1>Password Binding</h1>

<PasswordEntry @bind-Password="password" />

<p>
    <code>password</code>: @password
</p>

@code {
    private string password = "Not set";
}
@page "/password-binding"

<h1>Password Binding</h1>

<PasswordEntry @bind-Password="password" />

<p>
    <code>password</code>: @password
</p>

@code {
    private string password = "Not set";
}

When the PasswordBinding component is initially rendered, the password value of Not set is displayed in the UI. After initial rendering, the value of password reflects changes made to the Password component parameter value in the PasswordEntry component.

Note

The preceding example binds the password one-way from the child PasswordEntry component to the parent PasswordBinding component. Two-way binding isn't a requirement in this scenario if the goal is for the app to have a shared password entry component for reuse around the app that merely passes the password to the parent. For an approach that permits two-way binding without writing directly to the child component's parameter, see the NestedChild component example in the Bind across more than two components section of this article.

Perform checks or trap errors in the handler. The following revised PasswordEntry component provides immediate feedback to the user if a space is used in the password's value.

PasswordEntry.razor:

<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:22rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">Password Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            <label>
                Password:
                <input @oninput="OnPasswordChanged"
                       required
                       type="@(showPassword ? "text" : "password")"
                       value="@password" />
            </label>
            <span class="text-danger">@validationMessage</span>
        </p>
        <button class="btn btn-primary" @onclick="ToggleShowPassword">
            Show password
        </button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private bool showPassword;
    private string? password;
    private string? validationMessage;

    [Parameter]
    public string? Password { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> PasswordChanged { get; set; }

    private Task OnPasswordChanged(ChangeEventArgs e)
    {
        password = e?.Value?.ToString();

        if (password != null && password.Contains(' '))
        {
            validationMessage = "Spaces not allowed!";

            return Task.CompletedTask;
        }
        else
        {
            validationMessage = string.Empty;

            return PasswordChanged.InvokeAsync(password);
        }
    }

    private void ToggleShowPassword()
    {
        showPassword = !showPassword;
    }
}
<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:22rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">Password Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            <label>
                Password:
                <input @oninput="OnPasswordChanged"
                       required
                       type="@(showPassword ? "text" : "password")"
                       value="@password" />
            </label>
            <span class="text-danger">@validationMessage</span>
        </p>
        <button class="btn btn-primary" @onclick="ToggleShowPassword">
            Show password
        </button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private bool showPassword;
    private string? password;
    private string? validationMessage;

    [Parameter]
    public string? Password { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> PasswordChanged { get; set; }

    private Task OnPasswordChanged(ChangeEventArgs e)
    {
        password = e?.Value?.ToString();

        if (password != null && password.Contains(' '))
        {
            validationMessage = "Spaces not allowed!";

            return Task.CompletedTask;
        }
        else
        {
            validationMessage = string.Empty;

            return PasswordChanged.InvokeAsync(password);
        }
    }

    private void ToggleShowPassword()
    {
        showPassword = !showPassword;
    }
}

In the following example, the PasswordUpdated method executes asynchronously after binding the Password component parameter:

<PasswordEntry @bind-Password="password" @bind-Password:after="PasswordUpdated" />
<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:22rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">Password Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            <label>
                Password:
                <input @oninput="OnPasswordChanged"
                       required
                       type="@(showPassword ? "text" : "password")"
                       value="@password" />
            </label>
            <span class="text-danger">@validationMessage</span>
        </p>
        <button class="btn btn-primary" @onclick="ToggleShowPassword">
            Show password
        </button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private bool showPassword;
    private string? password;
    private string? validationMessage;

    [Parameter]
    public string? Password { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> PasswordChanged { get; set; }

    private Task OnPasswordChanged(ChangeEventArgs e)
    {
        password = e?.Value?.ToString();

        if (password != null && password.Contains(' '))
        {
            validationMessage = "Spaces not allowed!";

            return Task.CompletedTask;
        }
        else
        {
            validationMessage = string.Empty;

            return PasswordChanged.InvokeAsync(password);
        }
    }

    private void ToggleShowPassword()
    {
        showPassword = !showPassword;
    }
}
<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:22rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">Password Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            <label>
                Password:
                <input @oninput="OnPasswordChanged"
                       required
                       type="@(showPassword ? "text" : "password")"
                       value="@password" />
            </label>
            <span class="text-danger">@validationMessage</span>
        </p>
        <button class="btn btn-primary" @onclick="ToggleShowPassword">
            Show password
        </button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private bool showPassword;
    private string password;
    private string validationMessage;

    [Parameter]
    public string Password { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> PasswordChanged { get; set; }

    private Task OnPasswordChanged(ChangeEventArgs e)
    {
        password = e.Value.ToString();

        if (password.Contains(' '))
        {
            validationMessage = "Spaces not allowed!";

            return Task.CompletedTask;
        }
        else
        {
            validationMessage = string.Empty;

            return PasswordChanged.InvokeAsync(password);
        }
    }

    private void ToggleShowPassword()
    {
        showPassword = !showPassword;
    }
}
<div class="card bg-light mt-3" style="width:22rem ">
    <div class="card-body">
        <h3 class="card-title">Password Component</h3>
        <p class="card-text">
            <label>
                Password:
                <input @oninput="OnPasswordChanged"
                       required
                       type="@(showPassword ? "text" : "password")"
                       value="@password" />
            </label>
            <span class="text-danger">@validationMessage</span>
        </p>
        <button class="btn btn-primary" @onclick="ToggleShowPassword">
            Show password
        </button>
    </div>
</div>

@code {
    private bool showPassword;
    private string password;
    private string validationMessage;

    [Parameter]
    public string Password { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> PasswordChanged { get; set; }

    private Task OnPasswordChanged(ChangeEventArgs e)
    {
        password = e.Value.ToString();

        if (password.Contains(' '))
        {
            validationMessage = "Spaces not allowed!";

            return Task.CompletedTask;
        }
        else
        {
            validationMessage = string.Empty;

            return PasswordChanged.InvokeAsync(password);
        }
    }

    private void ToggleShowPassword()
    {
        showPassword = !showPassword;
    }
}

Bind across more than two components

You can bind parameters through any number of nested components, but you must respect the one-way flow of data:

  • Change notifications flow up the hierarchy.
  • New parameter values flow down the hierarchy.

A common and recommended approach is to only store the underlying data in the parent component to avoid any confusion about what state must be updated, as shown in the following example.

Parent2.razor:

@page "/parent-2"

<PageTitle>Parent 2</PageTitle>

<h1>Parent Example 2</h1>

<p>Parent Message: <b>@parentMessage</b></p>

<p>
    <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Parent</button>
</p>

<NestedChild @bind-ChildMessage="parentMessage" />

@code {
    private string parentMessage = "Initial value set in Parent";

    private void ChangeValue()
    {
        parentMessage = $"Set in Parent {DateTime.Now}";
    }
}
@page "/parent-2"

<h1>Parent Component</h1>

<p>Parent Message: <b>@parentMessage</b></p>

<p>
    <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Parent</button>
</p>

<NestedChild @bind-ChildMessage="parentMessage" />

@code {
    private string parentMessage = "Initial value set in Parent";

    private void ChangeValue()
    {
        parentMessage = $"Set in Parent {DateTime.Now}";
    }
}
@page "/parent-2"

<h1>Parent Component</h1>

<p>Parent Message: <b>@parentMessage</b></p>

<p>
    <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Parent</button>
</p>

<NestedChild @bind-ChildMessage="parentMessage" />

@code {
    private string parentMessage = "Initial value set in Parent";

    private void ChangeValue()
    {
        parentMessage = $"Set in Parent {DateTime.Now}";
    }
}
@page "/parent-2"

<h1>Parent Component</h1>

<p>Parent Message: <b>@parentMessage</b></p>

<p>
    <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Parent</button>
</p>

<NestedChild @bind-ChildMessage="parentMessage" />

@code {
    private string parentMessage = "Initial value set in Parent";

    private void ChangeValue()
    {
        parentMessage = $"Set in Parent {DateTime.Now}";
    }
}
@page "/parent-2"

<h1>Parent Component</h1>

<p>Parent Message: <b>@parentMessage</b></p>

<p>
    <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Parent</button>
</p>

<NestedChild @bind-ChildMessage="parentMessage" />

@code {
    private string parentMessage = "Initial value set in Parent";

    private void ChangeValue()
    {
        parentMessage = $"Set in Parent {DateTime.Now}";
    }
}

In the following NestedChild component, the NestedGrandchild component:

  • Assigns the value of ChildMessage to GrandchildMessage with @bind:get syntax.
  • Updates GrandchildMessage when ChildMessageChanged executes with @bind:set syntax.

NestedChild.razor:

<div class="border rounded m-1 p-1">
    <h2>Child Component</h2>

    <p>Child Message: <b>@ChildMessage</b></p>

    <p>
        <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Child</button>
    </p>

    <NestedGrandchild @bind-GrandchildMessage:get="ChildMessage" 
        @bind-GrandchildMessage:set="ChildMessageChanged" />
</div>

@code {
    [Parameter]
    public string? ChildMessage { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string?> ChildMessageChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task ChangeValue()
    {
        await ChildMessageChanged.InvokeAsync(
            $"Set in Child {DateTime.Now}");
    }
}
<div class="border rounded m-1 p-1">
    <h2>Child Component</h2>

    <p>Child Message: <b>@ChildMessage</b></p>

    <p>
        <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Child</button>
    </p>

    <NestedGrandchild @bind-GrandchildMessage:get="ChildMessage" 
        @bind-GrandchildMessage:set="ChildMessageChanged" />
</div>

@code {
    [Parameter]
    public string? ChildMessage { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> ChildMessageChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task ChangeValue()
    {
        await ChildMessageChanged.InvokeAsync(
            $"Set in Child {DateTime.Now}");
    }
}
<div class="border rounded m-1 p-1">
    <h2>Child Component</h2>

    <p>Child Message: <b>@ChildMessage</b></p>

    <p>
        <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Child</button>
    </p>

    <NestedGrandchild @bind-GrandchildMessage="BoundValue" />
</div>

@code {
    [Parameter]
    public string? ChildMessage { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> ChildMessageChanged { get; set; }

    private string BoundValue
    {
        get => ChildMessage ?? string.Empty;
        set => ChildMessageChanged.InvokeAsync(value);
    }

    private async Task ChangeValue()
    {
        await ChildMessageChanged.InvokeAsync(
            $"Set in Child {DateTime.Now}");
    }
}
<div class="border rounded m-1 p-1">
    <h2>Child Component</h2>

    <p>Child Message: <b>@ChildMessage</b></p>

    <p>
        <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Child</button>
    </p>

    <NestedGrandchild @bind-GrandchildMessage="BoundValue" />
</div>

@code {
    [Parameter]
    public string ChildMessage { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> ChildMessageChanged { get; set; }

    private string BoundValue
    {
        get => ChildMessage;
        set => ChildMessageChanged.InvokeAsync(value);
    }

    private async Task ChangeValue()
    {
        await ChildMessageChanged.InvokeAsync(
            $"Set in Child {DateTime.Now}");
    }
}
<div class="border rounded m-1 p-1">
    <h2>Child Component</h2>

    <p>Child Message: <b>@ChildMessage</b></p>

    <p>
        <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Child</button>
    </p>

    <NestedGrandchild @bind-GrandchildMessage="BoundValue" />
</div>

@code {
    [Parameter]
    public string ChildMessage { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> ChildMessageChanged { get; set; }

    private string BoundValue
    {
        get => ChildMessage;
        set => ChildMessageChanged.InvokeAsync(value);
    }

    private async Task ChangeValue()
    {
        await ChildMessageChanged.InvokeAsync(
            $"Set in Child {DateTime.Now}");
    }
}

Warning

Generally, avoid creating components that write directly to their own component parameters. The preceding NestedChild component makes use of a BoundValue property instead of writing directly to its ChildMessage parameter. For more information, see Avoid overwriting parameters in ASP.NET Core Blazor.

NestedGrandchild.razor:

<div class="border rounded m-1 p-1">
    <h3>Grandchild Component</h3>

    <p>Grandchild Message: <b>@GrandchildMessage</b></p>

    <p>
        <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Grandchild</button>
    </p>
</div>

@code {
    [Parameter]
    public string? GrandchildMessage { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> GrandchildMessageChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task ChangeValue()
    {
        await GrandchildMessageChanged.InvokeAsync(
            $"Set in Grandchild {DateTime.Now}");
    }
}
<div class="border rounded m-1 p-1">
    <h3>Grandchild Component</h3>

    <p>Grandchild Message: <b>@GrandchildMessage</b></p>

    <p>
        <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Grandchild</button>
    </p>
</div>

@code {
    [Parameter]
    public string? GrandchildMessage { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> GrandchildMessageChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task ChangeValue()
    {
        await GrandchildMessageChanged.InvokeAsync(
            $"Set in Grandchild {DateTime.Now}");
    }
}
<div class="border rounded m-1 p-1">
    <h3>Grandchild Component</h3>

    <p>Grandchild Message: <b>@GrandchildMessage</b></p>

    <p>
        <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Grandchild</button>
    </p>
</div>

@code {
    [Parameter]
    public string? GrandchildMessage { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> GrandchildMessageChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task ChangeValue()
    {
        await GrandchildMessageChanged.InvokeAsync(
            $"Set in Grandchild {DateTime.Now}");
    }
}
<div class="border rounded m-1 p-1">
    <h3>Grandchild Component</h3>

    <p>Grandchild Message: <b>@GrandchildMessage</b></p>

    <p>
        <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Grandchild</button>
    </p>
</div>

@code {
    [Parameter]
    public string GrandchildMessage { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> GrandchildMessageChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task ChangeValue()
    {
        await GrandchildMessageChanged.InvokeAsync(
            $"Set in Grandchild {DateTime.Now}");
    }
}
<div class="border rounded m-1 p-1">
    <h3>Grandchild Component</h3>

    <p>Grandchild Message: <b>@GrandchildMessage</b></p>

    <p>
        <button @onclick="ChangeValue">Change from Grandchild</button>
    </p>
</div>

@code {
    [Parameter]
    public string GrandchildMessage { get; set; }

    [Parameter]
    public EventCallback<string> GrandchildMessageChanged { get; set; }

    private async Task ChangeValue()
    {
        await GrandchildMessageChanged.InvokeAsync(
            $"Set in Grandchild {DateTime.Now}");
    }
}

For an alternative approach suited to sharing data in memory and across components that aren't necessarily nested, see ASP.NET Core Blazor state management.

Additional resources