Applies to: Azure SQL Database
Active geo-replication is a feature that lets you create a continuously synchronized readable secondary database for a primary database. The readable secondary database may be in the same Azure region as the primary, or, more commonly, in a different region. This kind of readable secondary database is also known as a geo-secondary or geo-replica.
Active geo-replication is designed as a business continuity solution that lets you perform quick disaster recovery of individual databases in case of a regional disaster or a large scale outage. Once geo-replication is set up, you can initiate a geo-failover to a geo-secondary in a different Azure region. The geo-failover is initiated programmatically by the application or manually by the user.
For geographic failover of instances of SQL Managed Instance, use Auto-failover groups. For more information, Compare geo-replication with failover groups. Active geo-replication is not supported by Azure SQL Managed Instance.
To migrate SQL databases from Azure Germany using active geo-replication, see Migrate SQL Database using active geo-replication.
If your application requires a stable connection endpoint and automatic geo-failover support in addition to geo-replication, use Auto-failover groups.
The following diagram illustrates a typical configuration of a geo-redundant cloud application using Active geo-replication.
If for any reason your primary database fails, you can initiate a geo-failover to any of your secondary databases. When a secondary is promoted to the primary role, all other secondaries are automatically linked to the new primary.
You can manage geo-replication and initiate a geo-failover using the following:
- The Azure portal
- PowerShell: Single database
- PowerShell: Elastic pool
- Transact-SQL: Single database or elastic pool
- REST API: Single database
Active geo-replication leverages the Always On availability group technology to asynchronously replicate transaction log generated on the primary replica to all geo-replicas. While at any given point, a secondary database might be slightly behind the primary database, the data on a secondary is guaranteed to be transactionally consistent. In other words, changes made by uncommitted transactions are not visible.
Active geo-replication replicates changes by streaming database transaction log from the primary replica to secondary replicas. It is unrelated to transactional replication, which replicates changes by executing DML (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) commands on subscribers.
Regional redundancy provided by geo-replication enables applications to quickly recover from a permanent loss of an entire Azure region, or parts of a region, caused by natural disasters, catastrophic human errors, or malicious acts. Geo-replication RPO can be found in Overview of Business Continuity.
The following figure shows an example of active geo-replication configured with a primary in the North Central US region and a geo-secondary in the South Central US region.
In addition to disaster recovery, active geo-replication can be used in the following scenarios:
- Database migration: You can use active geo-replication to migrate a database from one server to another with minimum downtime.
- Application upgrades: You can create an extra secondary as a fail back copy during application upgrades.
Active geo-replication terminology and capabilities
Automatic asynchronous replication
You can only create a geo-secondary for an existing database. The geo-secondary can be created on any logical server, other than the server with the primary database. Once created, the geo-secondary replica is populated with the data of the primary database. This process is known as seeding. After a geo-secondary has been created and seeded, updates to the primary database are automatically and asynchronously replicated to the geo-secondary replica. Asynchronous replication means that transactions are committed on the primary database before they are replicated.
Readable geo-secondary replicas
An application can access a geo-secondary replica to execute read-only queries using the same or different security principals used for accessing the primary database. For more information, see Use read-only replicas to offload read-only query workloads.
You can use geo-replication to create secondary replicas in the same region as the primary. You can use these secondaries to satisfy read scale-out scenarios in the same region. However, a secondary replica in the same region does not provide additional resilience to catastrophic failures or large scale outages, and therefore is not a suitable failover target for disaster recovery purposes. It also does not guarantee availability zone isolation. Use Business Critical or Premium service tiers zone redundant configuration or General Purpose service tier zone redundant configuration to achieve availability zone isolation.
Planned geo-failover switches the roles of primary and geo-secondary databases after completing full data synchronization. A planned failover does not result in data loss. The duration of planned geo-failover depends on the size of transaction log on the primary that needs to be synchronized to the geo-secondary. Planned geo-failover is designed for the following scenarios:
- Perform DR drills in production when the data loss is not acceptable;
- Relocate the database to a different region;
- Return the database to the primary region after the outage has been mitigated (known as failback).
Unplanned, or forced, geo-failover immediately switches the geo-secondary to the primary role without any synchronization with the primary. Any transactions committed on the primary but not yet replicated to the secondary are lost. This operation is designed as a recovery method during outages when the primary is not accessible, but database availability must be quickly restored. When the original primary is back online, it will be automatically reconnected, reseeded using the current primary data, and become a new geo-secondary.
After either planned or unplanned geo-failover, the connection endpoint for the new primary changes because the new primary is now located on a different logical server.
Multiple readable geo-secondaries
Up to four geo-secondaries can be created for a primary. If there is only one secondary, and it fails, the application is exposed to higher risk until a new secondary is created. If multiple secondaries exist, the application remains protected even if one of the secondaries fails. Additional secondaries can also be used to scale out read-only workloads.
If you are using active geo-replication to build a globally distributed application and need to provide read-only access to data in more than four regions, you can create a secondary of a secondary (a process known as chaining) to create additional geo-replicas. Replication lag on chained geo-replicas may be higher than on geo-replicas connected directly to the primary. Setting up chained geo-replication topologies is only supported programmatically, and not from Azure portal.
Geo-replication of databases in an elastic pool
Each geo-secondary can be a single database or a database in an elastic pool. The elastic pool choice for each geo-secondary database is separate and does not depend on the configuration of any other replica in the topology (either primary or secondary). Each elastic pool is contained within a single logical server. Because database names on a logical server must be unique, multiple geo-secondaries of the same primary can never share an elastic pool.
User-controlled geo-failover and failback
A geo-secondary that has finished initial seeding can be explicitly switched to the primary role (failed over) at any time by the application or the user. During an outage where the primary is inaccessible, only an unplanned geo-failover can be used. That immediately promotes a geo-secondary to be the new primary. When the outage is mitigated, the system automatically makes the recovered primary a geo-secondary, and brings it up-to-date with the new primary. Due to the asynchronous nature of geo-replication, recent transactions may be lost during unplanned geo-failovers if the primary fails before these transactions are replicated to a geo-secondary. When a primary with multiple geo-secondaries fails over, the system automatically reconfigures replication relationships and links the remaining geo-secondaries to the newly promoted primary, without requiring any user intervention. After the outage that caused the geo-failover is mitigated, it may be desirable to return the primary to its original region. To do that, invoke a planned geo-failover.
Prepare for geo-failover
To ensure that your application can immediately access the new primary after geo-failover, validate that authentication and network access for your secondary server are properly configured. For details, see SQL Database security after disaster recovery. Also validate that backup retention policy on the secondary database matches that of the primary. This setting is not a part of the database and is not replicated from the primary. By default, the geo-secondary is configured with a default PITR retention period of seven days. For details, see SQL Database automated backups.
If your database is a member of a failover group, you cannot initiate its failover using the geo-replication failover command. Use the failover command for the group. If you need to failover an individual database, you must remove it from the failover group first. See Auto-failover groups for details.
Both primary and geo-secondary are required to have the same service tier. It is also strongly recommended that the geo-secondary is configured with the same backup storage redundancy and compute size (DTUs or vCores) as the primary. If the primary is experiencing a heavy write workload, a geo-secondary with a lower compute size may not be able to keep up. That will cause replication lag on the geo-secondary, and may eventually cause unavailability of the geo-secondary. To mitigate these risks, active geo-replication will reduce (throttle) the primary's transaction log rate if necessary to allow its secondaries to catch up.
Another consequence of an imbalanced geo-secondary configuration is that after failover, application performance may suffer due to insufficient compute capacity of the new primary. In that case, it will be necessary to scale up the database to have sufficient resources, which may take significant time, and will require a high availability failover at the end of the scale up process, which may interrupt application workloads.
If you decide to create the geo-secondary with a lower compute size, you should monitor log IO rate on the primary over time. This lets you estimate the minimal compute size of the geo-secondary required to sustain the replication load. For example, if your primary database is P6 (1000 DTU) and its log IO is sustained at 50%, the geo-secondary needs to be at least P4 (500 DTU). To retrieve historical log IO data, use the sys.resource_stats view. To retrieve recent log IO data with higher granularity that better reflects short-term spikes, use the sys.dm_db_resource_stats view.
Transaction log IO throttling on the primary due to lower compute size on a geo-secondary is reported using the HADR_THROTTLE_LOG_RATE_MISMATCHED_SLO wait type, visible in the sys.dm_exec_requests and sys.dm_os_wait_stats database views.
Transaction log IO on the primary may be throttled for reasons unrelated to lower compute size on a geo-secondary. This kind of throttling may occur even if the geo-secondary has the same or higher compute size than the primary. For details, including wait types for different kinds of log IO throttling, see Transaction log rate governance.
By default, backup storage redundancy of the geo-secondary is same as for the primary database. You can choose to configure a geo-secondary with a different backup storage redundancy. Backups are always taken on the primary database. If the secondary is configured with a different backup storage redundancy, then after a geo-failover, when the geo-secondary is promoted to the primary, new backups will be stored and billed according to the type of storage (RA-GRS, ZRS, LRS) selected on the new primary (previous secondary).
To create a geo-secondary in a subscription different from the subscription of the primary (whether under the same Azure Active Directory tenant or not), follow the steps in this section.
Add the IP address of the client machine executing the T-SQL commands below to the server firewalls of both the primary and secondary servers. You can confirm that IP address by executing the following query while connected to the primary server from the same client machine.
select client_net_address from sys.dm_exec_connections where session_id = @@SPID;
For more information, see Configure firewall.
masterdatabase on the primary server, create a SQL authentication login dedicated to active geo-replication setup. Adjust login name and password as needed.
create login geodrsetup with password = 'ComplexPassword01';
In the same database, create a user for the login, and add it to the
create user geodrsetup for login geodrsetup; alter role dbmanager add member geodrsetup;
Take note of the SID value of the new login. Obtain the SID value using the following query.
select sid from sys.sql_logins where name = 'geodrsetup';
Connect to the primary database (not the
masterdatabase), and create a user for the same login.
create user geodrsetup for login geodrsetup;
In the same database, add the user to the
alter role db_owner add member geodrsetup;
masterdatabase on the secondary server, create the same login as on the primary server, using the same name, password, and SID. Replace the hexadecimal SID value in the sample command below with the one obtained in Step 4.
create login geodrsetup with password = 'ComplexPassword01', sid=0x010600000000006400000000000000001C98F52B95D9C84BBBA8578FACE37C3E;
In the same database, create a user for the login, and add it to the
create user geodrsetup for login geodrsetup; alter role dbmanager add member geodrsetup;
Connect to the
masterdatabase on the primary server using the new
geodrsetuplogin, and initiate geo-secondary creation on the secondary server. Adjust database name and secondary server name as needed. Once the command is executed, you can monitor geo-secondary creation by querying the sys.dm_geo_replication_link_status view in the primary database, and the sys.dm_operation_status view in the
masterdatabase on the primary server. The time needed to create a geo-secondary depends on the primary database size.
alter database [dbrep] add secondary on server [servername];
After the geo-secondary is successfully created, the users, logins, and firewall rules created by this procedure can be removed.
Cross-subscription geo-replication operations including setup and geo-failover are only supported using REST API & T-SQL commands.
Adding a geo-secondary using T-SQL is not supported when connecting to the primary server over a private endpoint. If a private endpoint is configured but public network access is allowed, adding a geo-secondary is supported when connected to the primary server from a public IP address. Once a geo-secondary is added, public network access can be denied.
Creating a geo-secondary on a logical server in a different Azure tenant is not supported when Azure Active Directory only authentication for Azure SQL is active (enabled) on either primary or secondary logical server.
Keep credentials and firewall rules in sync
When using public network access for connecting to the database, we recommend using database-level IP firewall rules for geo-replicated databases. These rules are replicated with the database, which ensures that all geo-secondaries have the same IP firewall rules as the primary. This approach eliminates the need for customers to manually configure and maintain firewall rules on servers hosting the primary and secondary databases. Similarly, using contained database users for data access ensures both primary and secondary databases always have the same authentication credentials. This way, after a geo-failover, there are no disruptions due to authentication credential mismatches. If you are using logins and users (rather than contained users), you must take extra steps to ensure that the same logins exist for your secondary database. For configuration details, see How to configure logins and users.
Scale primary database
You can scale up or scale down the primary database to a different compute size (within the same service tier) without disconnecting any geo-secondaries. When scaling up, we recommend that you scale up the geo-secondary first, and then scale up the primary. When scaling down, reverse the order: scale down the primary first, and then scale down the secondary.
If you created a geo-secondary as part of failover group configuration, it is not recommended to scale it down. This is to ensure your data tier has sufficient capacity to process your regular workload after a geo-failover.
The primary database in a failover group can't scale to a higher service tier (edition) unless the secondary database is first scaled to the higher tier. For example, if you want to scale up the primary from General Purpose to Business Critical, you have to first scale the geo-secondary to Business Critical. If you try to scale the primary or geo-secondary in a way that violates this rule, you will receive the following error:
The source database 'Primaryserver.DBName' cannot have higher edition than the target database 'Secondaryserver.DBName'. Upgrade the edition on the target before upgrading the source.
Prevent loss of critical data
Due to the high latency of wide area networks, geo-replication uses an asynchronous replication mechanism. Asynchronous replication makes the possibility of data loss unavoidable if the primary fails. To protect critical transactions from data loss, an application developer can call the sp_wait_for_database_copy_sync stored procedure immediately after committing the transaction. Calling
sp_wait_for_database_copy_sync blocks the calling thread until the last committed transaction has been transmitted and hardened in the transaction log of the secondary database. However, it does not wait for the transmitted transactions to be replayed (redone) on the secondary.
sp_wait_for_database_copy_sync is scoped to a specific geo-replication link. Any user with the connection rights to the primary database can call this procedure.
sp_wait_for_database_copy_sync prevents data loss after geo-failover for specific transactions, but does not guarantee full synchronization for read access. The delay caused by a
sp_wait_for_database_copy_sync procedure call can be significant and depends on the size of the not yet transmitted transaction log on the primary at the time of the call.
Monitor geo-replication lag
To monitor lag with respect to RPO, use replication_lag_sec column of sys.dm_geo_replication_link_status on the primary database. It shows lag in seconds between the transactions committed on the primary, and hardened to the transaction log on the secondary. For example, if the lag is one second, it means that if the primary is impacted by an outage at this moment and a geo-failover is initiated, transactions committed in the last second will be lost.
To measure lag with respect to changes on the primary database that have been hardened on the geo-secondary, compare last_commit time on the geo-secondary with the same value on the primary.
If replication_lag_sec on the primary is NULL, it means that the primary does not currently know how far behind a geo-secondary is. This typically happens after process restarts and should be a transient condition. Consider sending an alert if replication_lag_sec returns NULL for an extended period of time. It may indicate that the geo-secondary cannot communicate with the primary due to a connectivity failure.
There are also conditions that could cause the difference between last_commit time on the geo-secondary and on the primary to become large. For example, if a commit is made on the primary after a long period of no changes, the difference will jump up to a large value before quickly returning to zero. Consider sending an alert if the difference between these two values remains large for a long time.
Programmatically manage active geo-replication
As discussed previously, active geo-replication can also be managed programmatically using T-SQL, Azure PowerShell, and REST API. The following tables describe the set of commands available. Active geo-replication includes a set of Azure Resource Manager APIs for management, including the Azure SQL Database REST API and Azure PowerShell cmdlets. These APIs support Azure role-based access control (Azure RBAC). For more information on how to implement access roles, see Azure role-based access control (Azure RBAC).
T-SQL: Manage geo-failover of single and pooled databases
These T-SQL commands only apply to active geo-replication and do not apply to failover groups. As such, they also do not apply to SQL Managed Instance, which only supports failover groups.
|ALTER DATABASE||Use ADD SECONDARY ON SERVER argument to create a secondary database for an existing database and starts data replication|
|ALTER DATABASE||Use FAILOVER or FORCE_FAILOVER_ALLOW_DATA_LOSS to switch a secondary database to be primary to initiate failover|
|ALTER DATABASE||Use REMOVE SECONDARY ON SERVER to terminate a data replication between a SQL Database and the specified secondary database.|
|sys.geo_replication_links||Returns information about all existing replication links for each database on a server.|
|sys.dm_geo_replication_link_status||Gets the last replication time, last replication lag, and other information about the replication link for a given database.|
|sys.dm_operation_status||Shows the status for all database operations including changes to replication links.|
|sys.sp_wait_for_database_copy_sync||Causes the application to wait until all committed transactions are hardened to the transaction log of a geo-secondary.|
PowerShell: Manage geo-failover of single and pooled databases
This article uses the Azure Az PowerShell module, which is the recommended PowerShell module for interacting with Azure. To get started with the Az PowerShell module, see Install Azure PowerShell. To learn how to migrate to the Az PowerShell module, see Migrate Azure PowerShell from AzureRM to Az.
The PowerShell Azure Resource Manager module is still supported by Azure SQL Database, but all future development is for the Az.Sql module. For these cmdlets, see AzureRM.Sql. The arguments for the commands in the Az module and in the AzureRm modules are substantially identical.
|Get-AzSqlDatabase||Gets one or more databases.|
|New-AzSqlDatabaseSecondary||Creates a secondary database for an existing database and starts data replication.|
|Set-AzSqlDatabaseSecondary||Switches a secondary database to be primary to initiate failover.|
|Remove-AzSqlDatabaseSecondary||Terminates data replication between a SQL Database and the specified secondary database.|
|Get-AzSqlDatabaseReplicationLink||Gets the geo-replication links for a database.|
REST API: Manage geo-failover of single and pooled databases
|Create or Update Database (createMode=Restore)||Creates, updates, or restores a primary or a secondary database.|
|Get Create or Update Database Status||Returns the status during a create operation.|
|Set Secondary Database as Primary (Planned Failover)||Sets which secondary database is primary by failing over from the current primary database. This option is not supported for SQL Managed Instance.|
|Set Secondary Database as Primary (Unplanned Failover)||Sets which secondary database is primary by failing over from the current primary database. This operation might result in data loss. This option is not supported for SQL Managed Instance.|
|Get Replication Link||Gets a specific replication link for a given database in a geo-replication partnership. It retrieves the information visible in the sys.geo_replication_links catalog view. This option is not supported for SQL Managed Instance.|
|Replication Links - List By Database||Gets all replication links for a given database in a geo-replication partnership. It retrieves the information visible in the sys.geo_replication_links catalog view.|
|Delete Replication Link||Deletes a database replication link. Cannot be done during failover.|
- For sample scripts, see:
- SQL Database also supports auto-failover groups. For more information, see using auto-failover groups.
- For a business continuity overview and scenarios, see Business continuity overview.
- To learn about Azure SQL Database automated backups, see SQL Database automated backups.
- To learn about using automated backups for recovery, see Restore a database from the service-initiated backups.
- To learn about authentication requirements for a new primary server and database, see SQL Database security after disaster recovery.