Azure SQL Database and Azure Synapse Analytics connectivity architecture

Applies to: Azure SQL Database Azure Synapse Analytics (dedicated SQL pools only)

This article explains architecture of various components that direct network traffic to a server in Azure SQL Database or dedicated SQL pools (formerly SQL DW) in Azure Synapse Analytics. It also explains different connection policies and how it impacts clients connecting from within Azure and clients connecting from outside of Azure.

Connectivity architecture

The following diagram provides a high-level overview of the connectivity architecture.

Diagram that shows a high-level overview of the connectivity architecture.

The following steps describe how a connection is established to Azure SQL Database:

  • Clients connect to the gateway that has a public IP address and listens on port 1433.
  • The gateway, depending on the effective connection policy, redirects or proxies the traffic to the right database cluster.
  • Inside the database cluster, traffic is forwarded to the appropriate database.

Connection policy

Servers in SQL Database and dedicated SQL pools (formerly SQL DW) in Azure Synapse support the following three options for the server's connection policy setting.

Note

The connection policy for dedicated SQL pools (formerly SQL DW) in Azure Synapse Analytics is set to Default. You cannot change this for dedicated SQL pools in Synapse workspaces.

  • Redirect (recommended): Clients establish connections directly to the node hosting the database, leading to reduced latency and improved throughput. For connections to use this mode, clients need to:
    • Allow outbound communication from the client to all Azure SQL IP addresses in the region on ports in the range of 11000 to 11999. Use the Service Tags for SQL to make this easier to manage.
    • Allow outbound communication from the client to Azure SQL Database gateway IP addresses on port 1433.
    • When using the Redirect connection policy, refer to the Azure IP Ranges and Service Tags – Public Cloud for a list of your region's IP addresses to allow.
  • Proxy: In this mode, all connections are proxied via the Azure SQL Database gateways, leading to increased latency and reduced throughput. For connections to use this mode, clients need to allow outbound communication from the client to Azure SQL Database gateway IP addresses on port 1433.
    • When using the Proxy connection policy, refer to the Gateway IP addresses list later in this article for your region's IP addresses to allow.
  • Default: This is the connection policy in effect on all servers after creation unless you explicitly alter the connection policy to either Proxy or Redirect. The default policy is Redirect for all client connections originating inside of Azure (for example, from an Azure Virtual Machine) and Proxy for all client connections originating outside (for example, connections from your local workstation).

We highly recommend the Redirect connection policy over the Proxy connection policy for the lowest latency and highest throughput. However, you need to meet the extra requirements for allowing network traffic as outlined above. If the client is an Azure Virtual Machine, you can accomplish this using Network Security Groups (NSG) with service tags. If the client is connecting from a workstation on-premises, you might need to work with your network admin to allow network traffic through your corporate firewall.

Connectivity from within Azure

If you're connecting from within Azure your connections have a connection policy of Redirect by default. A policy of Redirect means that after the TCP session is established to Azure SQL Database, the client session is then redirected to the right database cluster with a change to the destination virtual IP from that of the Azure SQL Database gateway to that of the cluster. Thereafter, all subsequent packets flow directly to the cluster, bypassing the Azure SQL Database gateway. The following diagram illustrates this traffic flow.

Diagram of the architecture overview of Azure SQL connectivity via redirection within Azure.

Connectivity from outside of Azure

If you're connecting from outside Azure, your connections have a connection policy of Proxy by default. A policy of Proxy means that the TCP session is established via the Azure SQL Database gateway and all subsequent packets flow via the gateway. The following diagram illustrates this traffic flow.

Diagram that shows how the TCP session is established via the Azure SQL Database gateway and all subsequent packets flow via the gateway.

Important

Open TCP ports 1434 and 14000-14999 to enable Connecting with DAC.

Gateway IP addresses

The table below lists the individual Gateway IP addresses and Gateway IP address subnets per region.

Periodically, we'll retire individual Gateway IP addresses and migrate the traffic to Gateway IP address subnets as per the process outlined at Azure SQL Database traffic migration to newer Gateways.

We strongly encourage customers to move away from relying on any individual Gateway IP address (since these will be retired in the future). Instead allow network traffic to reach both the individual Gateway IP addresses and Gateway IP address subnets in a region.

Important

  • Logins for SQL Database or dedicated SQL pools (formerly SQL DW) in Azure Synapse can land on any of the individual Gateway IP addresses or Gateway IP address subnets in a region. For consistent connectivity to SQL Database or dedicated SQL pools (formerly SQL DW) in Azure Synapse, allow network traffic to and from all the individual Gateway IP addresses and Gateway IP address subnets in a region.

  • Use the individual Gateway IP addresses and Gateway IP address subnets in this section if you're using a Proxy connection policy to connect to Azure SQL Database. If you're using the Redirect connection policy, refer to the Azure IP Ranges and Service Tags - Public Cloud for a list of your region's IP addresses to allow.

Region name Gateway IP addresses Gateway IP address subnets
Australia Central 20.36.104.6, 20.36.104.7 20.36.105.32/29, 20.53.48.96/27
Australia Central 2 20.36.113.0, 20.36.112.6 20.36.113.32/29,20.53.56.32/27
Australia East 13.75.149.87, 40.79.161.1, 13.70.112.9 13.70.112.32/29, 40.79.160.32/29, 40.79.168.32/29,20.53.46.128/27
Australia Southeast 13.73.109.251, 13.77.48.10, 13.77.49.32 13.77.49.32/29,104.46.179.160/27
Brazil South 191.233.200.14, 191.234.144.16, 191.234.152.3 191.233.200.32/29, 191.234.144.32/29, 191.234.152.32/27, 191.234.153.32/27, 191.234.157.136/29
Canada Central 52.246.152.0, 20.38.144.1 13.71.168.32/29, 20.38.144.32/29, 52.246.152.32/29,20.48.196.32/27
Canada East 40.69.105.9, 40.69.105.10 40.69.105.32/29,52.139.106.192/27
Central US 104.208.21.1, 13.89.169.20 104.208.21.192/29, 13.89.168.192/29, 52.182.136.192/29,20.40.228.128/27
China East 139.219.130.35 52.130.112.136/29
China East 2 40.73.82.1 52.130.120.88/29
China North 52.130.128.88/29
China North 2 40.73.50.0 52.130.40.64/29
East Asia 13.75.32.4, 13.75.32.14, 20.205.77.200, 20.205.83.224 13.75.32.192/29, 13.75.33.192/29, 20.195.72.32/27,20.205.77.176/29, 20.205.77.200/29, 20.205.83.224/29
East US 40.121.158.30, 40.79.153.12, 40.78.225.32 20.42.65.64/29, 20.42.73.0/29, 52.168.116.64/29, 20.62.132.160/29
East US 2 40.79.84.180, 52.177.185.181, 52.167.104.0, 104.208.150.3, 40.70.144.193 104.208.150.192/29, 40.70.144.192/29, 52.167.104.192/29,20.62.58.128/27
France Central 40.79.129.1, 40.79.137.8, 40.79.145.12 40.79.136.32/29, 40.79.144.32/29, 40.79.128.32/29, 20.43.47.192/27
France South 40.79.177.0, 40.79.177.10, 40.79.177.12 40.79.176.40/29, 40.79.177.32/29, 52.136.185.0/27
Germany West Central 51.116.240.0, 51.116.248.0, 51.116.152.0 51.116.152.32/29, 51.116.240.32/29, 51.116.248.32/29, 51.116.149.32/27
Germany North 51.116.56.0 51.116.57.32/29, 51.116.54.96/27
Central India 104.211.96.159, 104.211.86.30, 104.211.86.31, 40.80.48.32, 20.192.96.32 104.211.86.32/29, 20.192.96.32/29, 40.80.48.32/29, 20.192.43.160/29
South India 104.211.224.146 40.78.192.32/29, 40.78.193.32/29, 52.172.113.96/27
West India 104.211.160.80, 104.211.144.4 104.211.144.32/29, 104.211.145.32/29, 52.136.53.160/27
Central Israel 20.217.59.248/29, 20.217.91.192/29,20.217.75.192/29
North Italy 4.232.107.184/29, 4.232.195.192/29, 4.232.123.192/29
Japan East 40.79.184.8, 40.79.192.5, 13.78.104.32, 40.79.184.32 13.78.104.32/29, 40.79.184.32/29, 40.79.192.32/29, 20.191.165.160/27
Japan West 104.214.148.156, 40.74.97.10 40.74.96.32/29, 20.18.179.192/29, 20.189.225.160/27
Korea Central 52.231.32.42, 52.231.17.22, 52.231.17.23, 20.44.24.32, 20.194.64.33 20.194.64.32/29, 20.44.24.32/29, 52.231.16.32/29,20.194.73.64/27
Korea South 52.231.151.96 52.231.151.96/27, 52.231.151.88/29, 52.147.112.160/27
Malaysia South 20.17.67.248/29
North Central US 52.162.104.33, 52.162.105.9 52.162.105.200/29, 52.162.105.192/29, 20.49.119.32/27, 20.125.171.192/29
North Europe 52.138.224.1, 13.74.104.113 13.69.233.136/29, 13.74.105.192/29, 52.138.229.72/29, 52.146.133.128/27
Norway East 51.120.96.0, 51.120.96.33, 51.120.104.32, 51.120.208.32 51.120.96.32/29, 51.120.104.32/29, 51.120.208.32/29, 51.120.232.192/27
Norway West 51.120.216.0 51.120.217.32/29,51.13.136.224/27
Poland Central 20.215.27.192/29, 20.215.155.248/29,20.215.19.192/29
Qatar Central 20.21.43.248/29, 20.21.75.192/29, 20.21.67.192/29
Spain Central 68.221.99.184/29, 68.221.154.88/29, 68.221.147.192/29
South Africa North 102.133.152.0, 102.133.120.2, 102.133.152.32 102.133.120.32/29, 102.133.152.32/29, 102.133.248.32/29, 102.133.221.224/27
South Africa West 102.133.24.0 102.133.25.32/29,102.37.80.96/27
South Central US 104.214.16.32, 20.45.121.1, 20.49.88.1 20.45.121.32/29, 20.49.88.32/29, 20.49.89.32/29, 40.124.64.136/29, 20.65.132.160/27
South East Asia 104.43.15.0, 40.78.232.3, 13.67.16.193 13.67.16.192/29, 23.98.80.192/29, 40.78.232.192/29,20.195.65.32/27
Sweden Central 51.12.224.32/29, 51.12.232.32/29
Sweden South 51.12.200.32/29, 51.12.201.32/29
Switzerland North 51.107.56.0 51.107.56.32/29, 20.208.19.192/29, 51.103.203.192/29, 51.107.242.32/27
Taiwan North 51.53.107.248/29
Taiwan North west 51.53.187.248/29
Switzerland West 51.107.152.0 51.107.153.32/29, 51.107.250.64/27
UAE Central 20.37.72.64 20.37.72.96/29, 20.37.73.96/29
UAE North 65.52.248.0 40.120.72.32/29, 65.52.248.32/29, 20.38.152.24/29, 20.38.143.64/27
UK South 51.140.184.11, 51.105.64.0, 51.140.144.36, 51.105.72.32 51.105.64.32/29, 51.105.72.32/29, 51.140.144.32/29, 51.143.209.224/27
UK West 51.141.8.11, 51.140.208.96, 51.140.208.97 51.140.208.96/29, 51.140.209.32/29, 20.58.66.128/27
West Central US 13.78.145.25, 13.78.248.43, 13.71.193.32, 13.71.193.33 13.71.193.32/29, 20.69.0.32/27
West Europe 104.40.168.105, 52.236.184.163 104.40.169.32/29, 13.69.112.168/29, 52.236.184.32/29,20.61.99.192/27
West US 104.42.238.205, 13.86.216.196 13.86.217.224/29, 20.168.163.192/29, 20.66.3.64/27
West US 2 40.78.240.8, 40.78.248.10 13.66.136.192/29, 40.78.240.192/29, 40.78.248.192/29, 20.51.9.128/27
West US 3 20.150.168.0, 20.150.184.2 20.150.168.32/29, 20.150.176.32/29, 20.150.184.32/29, 20.150.241.128/27