Hyperscale elastic pools overview in Azure SQL Database

Applies to: Azure SQL Database

This article provides an overview of Hyperscale elastic pools in Azure SQL Database.

An Azure SQL Database elastic pool enables software as a service (SaaS) developers to optimize the price performance ratio for a group of databases within a prescribed budget, while delivering performance elasticity for each database. Azure SQL Database Hyperscale elastic pools introduces a shared resource model for Hyperscale databases.

For examples to create, scale, or move databases into a Hyperscale elastic pool by using the Azure CLI or PowerShell, review Working with Hyperscale elastic pools using command-line tools


Elastic pools for Hyperscale are currently in preview.


Deploy your Hyperscale database to an elastic pool to share resources between databases within the pool and optimize the cost of having multiple databases with different usage patterns.

Scenarios to use an elastic pool with your Hyperscale databases:

  • When you need to scale the compute resources allocated to the elastic pool up or down in a predictable amount of time, independent of the amount of allocated storage.
  • When you want to scale out the compute resources allocated to the elastic pool by adding one or more read-scale replicas.
  • If you want to use high transaction log throughput for write-intensive workloads, even with lower compute resources.

Migrating non-Hyperscale databases to a Hyperscale elastic pool upgrades the databases to the Hyperscale service tier.


Traditionally, the architecture of a standalone Hyperscale database consists of three main independent components: Compute, Storage ("Page Servers"), and the log ("Log Service"). When you create an elastic pool for your Hyperscale databases, the databases within the pool share compute and log resources. Additionally, if you choose to configure high availability, then each high availability pool is created with an equivalent and independent set of compute and log resources.

The following describes the architecture of an elastic pool for Hyperscale databases:

  • A Hyperscale elastic pool consists of a primary pool that hosts primary Hyperscale databases, and, if configured, up to four additional high availability pools.
  • Primary Hyperscale databases hosted in the primary elastic pool share the SQL Server database engine (sqlservr.exe) compute process, vCores, memory, and SSD cache.
  • Configuring high availability for the primary pool creates additional high availability pools that contain read-only database replicas for the databases in the primary pool. Each primary pool can have a maximum of four high availability replica pools. Each high availability pool shares compute, SSD cache, and memory resources for all the secondary read-only databases in the pool.
  • Hyperscale databases in the primary elastic pool all share the same log service. Since databases in the high availability pools don't have write workload, they don't utilize the log service.
  • Each Hyperscale database has its own set of page servers, and these page servers are shared between the primary database in the primary pool, and all secondary replica databases in the high availability pool.
  • Geo-replicated secondary Hyperscale databases can be placed inside another elastic pool.
  • Specifying ApplicationIntent=ReadOnly in your database connection string routes you to a read-only replica database in one of the high availability pools.

The following diagram shows the architecture of an elastic pool for Hyperscale databases:

Diagram showing the Hyperscale elastic pool architecture.

Manage Hyperscale elastic pool databases

You can use the same commands to manage your pooled Hyperscale databases as pooled databases in the other service tiers. Just be sure to specify Hyperscale for the edition when creating your Hyperscale elastic pool.

The only difference is the ability to modify the number of high availability (H/A) replicas for an existing Hyperscale elastic pool. To do so:

You can use the following client tools to manage your Hyperscale databases in an elastic pool:

Resource limits

The following lists the supported limits for working with Hyperscale databases within elastic pools:

  • Supported hardware generation: Standard-series (Gen5) only.
  • vCore maximum per pool: 80 vCores.
  • Maximum supported data size per database: 100 TB.
  • Maximum supported total data size across DBs in the pool: 100 TB.
  • Maximum supported transaction log throughput per database: 100 MB.
  • Maximum supported total transaction log throughput across databases in the pool: 130 MB/second.
  • Each Hyperscale elastic pool can have up to 25 databases.

For greater detail, see the Hyperscale elastic pool resource limits.


Performance profiles, supported capabilities, and published limits are subject to change while the feature is in preview. As such, it's best to validate your use case with regular functional, performance, and scale testing of workloads.


Consider the following limitations:

  • Changing an existing non-Hyperscale elastic pool to the Hyperscale edition isn't supported. Individual databases need to be moved out of their respective existing pool before they can be added to the Hyperscale elastic pool.
  • Changing the edition of a Hyperscale elastic pool to a non-Hyperscale edition isn't supported.
  • In order to reverse migrate an eligible database, which is in a Hyperscale elastic pool, it must first be removed from the Hyperscale elastic pool. The standalone Hyperscale database can then be reverse migrated to a General Purpose standalone database.
  • Maintenance of databases in a pool is performed, and maintenance windows are configured, at the pool level. It isn't currently possible to configure a maintenance window for Hyperscale elastic pools.
  • Zone redundancy isn't currently available for Hyperscale elastic pools. Attempting to add a zone-redundant Hyperscale database to a Hyperscale elastic pool results in an error.
  • Adding a named replica into a Hyperscale elastic pool isn't supported. Attempting to add a named replica of a Hyperscale database to a Hyperscale elastic pool results in a UnsupportedReplicationOperation error. Instead, create the named replica as a single Hyperscale database.

Known issues

Issue Recommendation
In rare cases, you may get the error 45122 - This Hyperscale database cannot be added into an elastic pool at this time. In case of any questions, please contact Microsoft support, when trying to move / restore / copy a Hyperscale database into an elastic pool. This limitation is due to implementation-specific details. If this error is blocking you, raise a support incident and request help.
If you use Azure PowerShell or the Azure CLI to create a geo-replica with Geo-zone-redundant storage (GZRS) inside a Hyperscale elastic pool, the request fails with the error (UnsupportedBackupStorageRedundancyForEdition) The requested backup storage redundancy of GeoZone is not supported for edition. To work around this issue, use the T-SQL ALTER DATABASE command to add the geo-secondary database.
If you copy a Hyperscale database, which has Geo-zone-redundant storage (GZRS), into a Hyperscale elastic pool, the request fails with the error 45508 - The requested storage account type of 'GeoZone' is not supported for edition 'Unknown'. To work around this issue, create the database copy as a standalone Hyperscale database. Later, add ("move") the copied database to the elastic pool. This issue only occurs if the storage redundancy is set to GZRS.
If you try to create a new Hyperscale elastic pool from PowerShell with the -ZoneRedundant parameter specified, you get a vague One or more errors occurred. If you run the PowerShell command with the respective -Verbose and -Debug parameters specified, you get the actual error: Provisioning of zone redundant database/pool is not supported for your current request. At this time, creating Hyperscale elastic pools with zone redundancy specified is unsupported.
If you try to use the Azure portal to add an existing Hyperscale database, which has Geo-zone-redundant storage (GZRS), into a Hyperscale elastic pool, you get an error Changing the backup storage account type value for Hyperscale is not supported. To work around this issue, use the ALTER DATABASE command, or the equivalent Set-AzSqlDatabase, or az sql db update commands to add the database to the elastic pool.

Next steps