render operator

Instructs the user agent to render a visualization of the query results.

The render operator must be the last operator in the query, and can only be used with queries that produce a single tabular data stream result. The render operator does not modify data. It injects an annotation ("Visualization") into the result's extended properties. The annotation contains the information provided by the operator in the query. The interpretation of the visualization information is done by the user agent. Different agents, such as Kusto.Explorer or Azure Data Explorer web UI, may support different visualizations.

The data model of the render operator looks at the tabular data as if it has three kinds of columns:

  • The x axis column (indicated by the xcolumn property).
  • The series columns (any number of columns indicated by the series property.) For each record, the combined values of these columns defines a single series, and the chart has as many series as there are distinct combined values.
  • The y axis columns (any number of columns indicated by the ycolumns property). For each record, the series has as many measurements ("points" in the chart) as there are y-axis columns.

Tip

  • Use where, summarize and top to limit the volume that you display.
  • Sort the data to define the order of the x-axis.
  • User agents are free to "guess" the value of properties that are not specified by the query. In particular, having "uninteresting" columns in the schema of the result might translate into them guessing wrong. Try projecting-away such columns when that happens.

Syntax

T | render visualization [with ( PropertyName = PropertyValue [, ...] )]

Parameters

Name Type Required Description
T string Input table name.
visualization string Indicates the kind of visualization to use. Must be one of the supported values in the following list.

Visualization

visualization Description
anomalychart Similar to timechart, but highlights anomalies using series_decompose_anomalies function.
areachart Area graph.
barchart displayed as horizontal strips.
card First result record is treated as set of scalar values and shows as a card.
columnchart Like barchart with vertical strips instead of horizontal strips.
ladderchart Last two columns are the x-axis, other columns are y-axis.
linechart Line graph.
piechart First column is color-axis, second column is numeric.
pivotchart Displays a pivot table and chart. User can interactively select data, columns, rows and various chart types.
scatterchart Points graph.
stackedareachart Stacked area graph.
table Default - results are shown as a table.
timechart Line graph. First column is x-axis, and must be datetime. Other (numeric) columns are y-axes.
timepivot Interactive navigation over the events time-line (pivoting on time axis)

Note

The ladderchart, pivotchart, and timepivot visualizations can be used in Kusto.Explorer but are not available in the Azure Data Explorer web UI.

Visualization Description
areachart Area graph. First column is the x-axis and should be a numeric column. Other numeric columns are y-axes.
barchart First column is the x-axis and can be text, datetime or numeric. Other columns are numeric, displayed as horizontal strips.
columnchart Like barchart with vertical strips instead of horizontal strips.
piechart First column is color-axis, second column is numeric.
scatterchart Points graph. First column is the x-axis and should be a numeric column. Other numeric columns are y-axes.
table Default - results are shown as a table.
timechart Line graph. First column is x-axis, and should be datetime. Other (numeric) columns are y-axes. There's one string column whose values are used to "group" the numeric columns and create different lines in the chart (further string columns are ignored).

Supported properties

PropertyName/PropertyValue indicate additional information to use when rendering. All properties are optional. The supported properties are:

PropertyName PropertyValue
accumulate Whether the value of each measure gets added to all its predecessors. (true or false)
kind Further elaboration of the visualization kind. For more information, see kind property.
legend Whether to display a legend or not (visible or hidden).
series Comma-delimited list of columns whose combined per-record values define the series that record belongs to.
ymin The minimum value to be displayed on Y-axis.
ymax The maximum value to be displayed on Y-axis.
title The title of the visualization (of type string).
xaxis How to scale the x-axis (linear or log).
xcolumn Which column in the result is used for the x-axis.
xtitle The title of the x-axis (of type string).
yaxis How to scale the y-axis (linear or log).
ycolumns Comma-delimited list of columns that consist of the values provided per value of the x column.
ysplit How to split multiple the visualization. For more information, see y-split property.
ytitle The title of the y-axis (of type string).
anomalycolumns Property relevant only for anomalychart. Comma-delimited list of columns, which will be considered as anomaly series and displayed as points on the chart
PropertyName PropertyValue
kind Further elaboration of the visualization kind. For more information, see kind property.
series Comma-delimited list of columns whose combined per-record values define the series that record belongs to.
title The title of the visualization (of type string).

kind property

This visualization can be further elaborated by providing the kind property. The supported values of this property are:

Visualization kind Description
areachart default Each "area" stands on its own.
unstacked Same as default.
stacked Stack "areas" to the right.
stacked100 Stack "areas" to the right and stretch each one to the same width as the others.
barchart default Each "bar" stands on its own.
unstacked Same as default.
stacked Stack "bars".
stacked100 Stack "bars" and stretch each one to the same width as the others.
columnchart default Each "column" stands on its own.
unstacked Same as default.
stacked Stack "columns" one atop the other.
stacked100 Stack "columns" and stretch each one to the same height as the others.
scatterchart map Expected columns are [Longitude, Latitude] or GeoJSON point. Series column is optional. For more information, see Geospatial visualizations.
piechart map Expected columns are [Longitude, Latitude] or GeoJSON point, color-axis and numeric. Supported in Kusto Explorer desktop. For more information, see Geospatial visualizations.

ysplit property

Some visualizations support splitting into multiple y-axis values:

ysplit Description
none A single y-axis is displayed for all series data. (Default)
axes A single chart is displayed with multiple y-axes (one per series).
panels One chart is rendered for each ycolumn value (up to some limit).

How to render continuous data

Several visualizations are used for rendering sequences of values, for example, linechart, timechart, and areachart. These visualizations have the following conceptual model:

  • One column in the table represents the x-axis of the data. This column can be explicitly defined using the xcolumn property. If not defined, the user agent will pick the first column that is appropriate for the visualization.
    • For example: in the timechart visualization, the user agent will use the first datetime column.
    • If this column is of type dynamic and it holds an array, the individual values in the array will be treated as the values of the x-axis.
  • One or more columns in the table represent one or more measures that vary by the x-axis. These columns can be explicitly defined using the ycolumns property. If not defined, the user agent will pick all columns that are appropriate for the visualization.
    • For example: in the timechart visualization, the user agent will use all columns with a numeric value that haven't been specified otherwise.
    • If the x-axis is an array, the values of each y-axis should also be an array of a similar length, with each y-axis occurring in a single column.
  • Zero or more columns in the table represent a unique set of dimensions that group together the measures. These columns can be specified by the series property, or the user agent will pick them automatically from the columns that are otherwise unspecified.

See also

Note

The data model of the render operator looks at the tabular data as if it has three kinds of columns:

  • The x axis column (indicated by the xcolumn property).
  • The series columns (any number of columns indicated by the series property.)
  • The y axis columns (any number of columns indicated by the ycolumns property). For each record, the series has as many measurements ("points" in the chart) as there are y-axis columns.

Example

InsightsMetrics
| where Computer == "DC00.NA.contosohotels.com"
| where Namespace  == "Processor" and Name == "UtilizationPercentage"
| summarize avg(Val) by Computer, bin(TimeGenerated, 1h)
| render timechart

See also