Use an Azure Artifacts feed as a private PowerShell repository

Azure DevOps Services

Azure Artifacts provides an easy way to share PowerShell scripts across teams to promote collaboration and maximize effectiveness. By storing PowerShell modules in a private repository, you can give members of your team the ability to download or update those scripts quickly using the command line.

This article will guide you through setting up your Azure Artifacts feed as a private PowerShell repository to store and share your PowerShell modules. You'll learn how to:

  • Create a Personal Access Token
  • Create a new feed to store PowerShell modules
  • Create, package, and publish PowerShell modules
  • Connect to a feed with PowerShell
  • Use the private PowerShell repository with Azure Pipelines


Create a personal access token

Using a personal access token (PAT) is a great way to authenticate with Azure DevOps without using your primary credentials. See Use personal access tokens for more details.

  1. Navigate to your Azure DevOps organization<ORGANIZATION_NAME>/

  2. Select the user settings icon, and then select Personal access tokens.

    A screenshot showing how to create a personal access token.

  3. Select New Token

  4. Enter a name for your PAT and then choose an Expiration date.

  5. Select Custom defined, and then select Packaging > Read, write & manage.

  6. Select Create when you're done. Copy and store your PAT in a safe location.

    A screenshot showing how to set up a new personal access token.

Create a module

  1. Create a new folder Get-Hello. Navigate inside your folder and create a new file Get-Hello.psm1.

    |--- Get-Hello               // Parent folder     
        |--- Get-Hello.psm1     // This will become our PowerShell Module
        |--- Get-Hello.psd1    // This will become our module manifest
  2. Paste the following script into your Get-Hello.psm1 file:

    Function Get-Hello{
        Write-Host "Hello from my Azure DevOps Services Package."
  3. Create the module manifest by running the following command in your Get-Hello directory path.

    New-ModuleManifest -Path .\Get-Hello.psd1
  4. Open your Get-Hello.psd1 file and find the RootModule variable. Replace the empty string with the path to your Get-Hello.psm1 file as follows:

    RootModule = 'Get-Hello.psm1'
  5. The FunctionsToExport section is meant to define the list of functions that will be exported from this module. Add your Get-Hello function as follows:

    FunctionsToExport = @('Get-Hello')
  6. Find the FileList section, and add the following list of files that should be packaged with your module.

    FileList = @('./Get-Hello.psm1')

Pack and publish module

  1. Create nuspec file for your module. This command will create a Get-Hello.nuspec file that contains metadata needed to pack the module.

    nuget spec Get-Hello
  2. Run the following command to pack your module.

    nuget pack Get-Hello.nuspec
  3. Run the following command to add your feed source URL. NuGet v3 is not supported, make sure you use v2 in your feed source URL.

    • Org-scoped feed:

      nuget sources Add -Name "<FEED_NAME>" -Source "<ORGANIZATION_NAME>/_packaging/<FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2" -username "<USER_NAME>" -password "<PERSONAL_ACCESS_TOKEN>"
    • Project-scoped feed:

      nuget sources Add -Name "<FEED_NAME>" -Source "<ORGANIZATION_NAME>/<PROJECT_NAME>/_packaging/<FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2" -username "<USER_NAME>" -password "<PERSONAL_ACCESS_TOKEN>"
  4. Publish the package to your feed.

    nuget push -Source "<FEED_NAME>" -ApiKey "<ANY_STRING>" "<PACKAGE_PATH>"

    A screenshot showing the published package.


The version number in your Module Manifest (.psd1) and the .nuspec file must match.

Connect to feed as a PowerShell repository

  1. Open an elevated PowerShell prompt window.

  2. Set up your credentials to authenticate with Azure Artifacts. Replace the placeholders with the appropriate information.

    $patToken = "<PERSONAL_ACCESS_TOKEN>" | ConvertTo-SecureString -AsPlainText -Force
    $credsAzureDevopsServices = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential("<USER_NAME>", $patToken)
  3. Register your PowerShell repository. The SourceLocation link can be found by navigating to Artifacts > Connect to Feed > NuGet.exe under Project setup source URL.

    • Project-scoped feed:

      Register-PSRepository -Name "PowershellAzureDevopsServices" -SourceLocation "<ORGANIZATION_NAME>/<PROJECT_NAME>/_packaging/<FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2" -PublishLocation "<ORGANIZATION_NAME>/<PROJECT_NAME>/_packaging/<FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2" -InstallationPolicy Trusted -Credential $credsAzureDevopsServices
    • Org-scoped feed:

      Register-PSRepository -Name "PowershellAzureDevopsServices" -SourceLocation "<ORGANIZATION_NAME>/_packaging/<FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2" -PublishLocation "<ORGANIZATION_NAME>/_packaging/<FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2" -InstallationPolicy Trusted -Credential $credsAzureDevopsServices

    If you're still using the older URLs, use the following command instead:

    • Project-scoped feed:

      Register-PSRepository -Name "PowershellAzureDevopsServices" -SourceLocation "https://<ORGANIZATION_NAME><PROJECT_NAME>/_packaging/<FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2" -PublishLocation "https://<ORGANIZATION_NAME><PROJECT_NAME>/_packaging/<FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2" -InstallationPolicy Trusted -Credential $credsAzureDevopsServices
    • Org-scoped feed:

      Register-PSRepository -Name "PowershellAzureDevopsServices" -SourceLocation "https://<ORGANIZATION_NAME><FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2" -PublishLocation "https://<ORGANIZATION_NAME><FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2" -InstallationPolicy Trusted -Credential $credsAzureDevopsServices


    Certain versions of PowerShell require restarting a new session after executing the Register-PSRepository cmdlet to avoid the Unable to resolve package source warning.

  4. Register your package source:

    • Project-scoped feed:

      Register-PackageSource -Name "PowershellAzureDevopsServices" -Location "<ORGANIZATION_NAME>/<PROJECT_NAME>/_packaging/<FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2" -ProviderName NuGet -Trusted -SkipValidate -Credential $credsAzureDevopsServices
    • Org-scoped feed:

      Register-PackageSource -Name "PowershellAzureDevopsServices" -Location "<ORGANIZATION_NAME>/_packaging/<FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2" -ProviderName NuGet -Trusted -SkipValidate -Credential $credsAzureDevopsServices 
  5. Run the following command to confirm if the repository was registered successfully. This command gets all the registered repositories for the current user:

  6. Run the following command if you want to find all modules in the repository.

    Find-Module -Repository PowershellAzureDevopsServices
  7. Run the following command if you want to install the Get-Hello module.

    Install-Module -Name Get-Hello -Repository PowershellAzureDevopsServices

If the Install-Module command is returning the following error: Unable to resolve package source, run the Register-PackageSource cmdlet again with the Trusted flag as follows:

Register-PackageSource -Name "PowershellAzureDevopsServices" -Location "<ORGANIZATION_NAME>/_packaging/<FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2" -ProviderName NuGet -Trusted -Trusted -SkipValidate -Credential $credsAzureDevopsServices


If your organization is using a firewall or a proxy server, make sure you allow Azure Artifacts Domain URLs and IP addresses.

Register and install module using Azure Pipelines

This example illustrates the process of authenticating and installing a PowerShell Module using a YAML pipeline. To use your personal access token within the pipeline, you should include it as a pipeline variable, as follows:

  1. Sign in to your Azure DevOps organization, and then navigate to your project.

  2. Select Pipelines, select your pipeline and then select Edit to edit your pipeline.

  3. Select Variables at the top right corner, and then select the + sign to create a new variable.

  4. Provide a Name for your variable, and then paste your personal access token in the Value textbox.

  5. Make sure you select the Keep this value secret checkbox. Select Ok when you're done. You are now ready to use your variable in your pipeline.

- main

  vmImage: 'Windows-latest'

  PackageFeedEndpoint: '<ORGANIZATION_NAME>/_packaging/<FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2'  ## For project scoped feeds use: '<ORGANIZATION_NAME>/<PROJECT_NAME>/_packaging/<FEED_NAME>/nuget/v2'
  PackageFeedEndpointCredential: '{"endpointCredentials": [{"endpoint":"$(PackageFeedEndpoint)", "username":"Admin", "password":"$(AZURE_DEVOPS_PAT)"}]}'

- powershell: |
    Register-PSRepository -Name "psRepoPipeline" -SourceLocation '$(PackageFeedEndpoint)' -InstallationPolicy Trusted
  displayName: 'Register Azure Artifacts Feed as PSRepository'
    VSS_NUGET_EXTERNAL_FEED_ENDPOINTS: $(PackageFeedEndpointCredential)

- powershell: |
     echo (Get-PSRepository)
  displayName: 'Get all module repositories'

- powershell: |
    Find-Module -Name "Get-Hello" | Install-Module -Confirm:$false -Force
  displayName: 'Install the Get-Hello PowerShell module'
    VSS_NUGET_EXTERNAL_FEED_ENDPOINTS: $(PackageFeedEndpointCredential)