Query & compare experiments and runs with MLflow

Experiments and runs tracking information in Azure Machine Learning can be queried using MLflow. You don't need to install any specific SDK to manage what happens inside of a training job, creating a more seamless transition between local runs and the cloud by removing cloud-specific dependencies.


The Azure Machine Learning Python SDK v2 does not provide native logging or tracking capabilities. This applies not just for logging but also for querying the metrics logged. Instead, we recommend to use MLflow to manage experiments and runs. This article explains how to use MLflow to manage experiments and runs in Azure ML.

MLflow allows you to:

  • Create, delete and search for experiments in a workspace.
  • Start, stop, cancel and query runs for experiments.
  • Track and retrieve metrics, parameters, artifacts and models from runs.

In this article, you'll learn how to manage experiments and runs in your workspace using Azure ML and MLflow SDK in Python.

Using MLflow SDK in Azure ML

Use MLflow to query and manage all the experiments in Azure Machine Learning. The MLflow SDK has capabilities to query everything that happens inside of a training job in Azure Machine Learning. See Support matrix for querying runs and experiments in Azure Machine Learning for a detailed comparison between MLflow Open-Source and MLflow when connected to Azure Machine Learning.


Getting all the experiments

You can get all the active experiments in the workspace using MLFlow:

experiments = mlflow.search_experiments()
for exp in experiments:


MLflow 2.0 advisory: In legacy versions of MLflow (<2.0) use method list_experiments instead.

If you want to retrieve archived experiments too, then include the option ViewType.ALL in the view_type argument. The following sample shows how:

from mlflow.entities import ViewType

experiments = mlflow.search_experiments(view_type=ViewType.ALL)
for exp in experiments:

Getting a specific experiment

Details about a specific experiment can be retrieved using the get_experiment_by_name method:

exp = mlflow.get_experiment_by_name(experiment_name)

Getting runs inside an experiment

MLflow allows searching runs inside of any experiment, including multiple experiments at the same time. By default, MLflow returns the data in Pandas Dataframe format, which makes it handy when doing further processing our analysis of the runs. Returned data includes columns with:

  • Basic information about the run.
  • Parameters with column's name params.<parameter-name>.
  • Metrics (last logged value of each) with column's name metrics.<metric-name>.

Getting all the runs from an experiment

By experiment name:

mlflow.search_runs(experiment_names=[ "my_experiment" ])

By experiment ID:

mlflow.search_runs(experiment_ids=[ "1234-5678-90AB-CDEFG" ])


Notice that experiment_ids supports providing an array of experiments, so you can search runs across multiple experiments if required. This may be useful in case you want to compare runs of the same model when it is being logged in different experiments (by different people, different project iterations, etc). You can also use search_all_experiments=True if you want to search across all the experiments in the workspace.

Another important point to notice is that get returning runs, all metrics are parameters are also returned for them. However, for metrics containing multiple values (for instance, a loss curve, or a PR curve), only the last value of the metric is returned. If you want to retrieve all the values of a given metric, uses mlflow.get_metric_history method.

Ordering runs

By default, experiments are ordered descending by start_time, which is the time the experiment was queue in Azure ML. However, you can change this default by using the parameter order_by.

mlflow.search_runs(experiment_ids=[ "1234-5678-90AB-CDEFG" ], order_by=["start_time DESC"])

Use the argument max_results from search_runs to limit the number of runs returned. For instance, the following example returns the last run of the experiment:

mlflow.search_runs(experiment_ids=[ "1234-5678-90AB-CDEFG" ], max_results=1, order_by=["start_time DESC"])


Using order_by with expressions containing metrics.* in the parameter order_by is not supported by the moment. Please use order_values method from Pandas as shown in the next example.

You can also order by metrics to know which run generated the best results:

mlflow.search_runs(experiment_ids=[ "1234-5678-90AB-CDEFG" ]).sort_values("metrics.accuracy", ascending=False)

Filtering runs

You can also look for a run with a specific combination in the hyperparameters using the parameter filter_string. Use params to access run's parameters and metrics to access metrics logged in the run. MLflow supports expressions joined by the AND keyword (the syntax does not support OR):

mlflow.search_runs(experiment_ids=[ "1234-5678-90AB-CDEFG" ], 

Filter runs by status

You can also filter experiment by status. It becomes useful to find runs that are running, completed, canceled or failed. In MLflow, status is an attribute, so we can access this value using the expression attributes.status. The following table shows the possible values:

Azure ML Job status MLFlow's attributes.status Meaning
Not started SCHEDULED The job/run was just registered in Azure ML but it has processed it yet.
Queue SCHEDULED The job/run is scheduled for running, but it hasn't started yet.
Preparing SCHEDULED The job/run has not started yet, but a compute has been allocated for the execution and it is on building state.
Running RUNNING The job/run is currently under active execution.
Completed FINISHED The job/run has completed without errors.
Failed FAILED The job/run has completed with errors.
Canceled KILLED The job/run has been canceled or killed by the user/system.


Expressions containing attributes.status in the parameter filter_string are not support at the moment. Please use Pandas filtering expressions as shown in the next example.

The following example shows all the completed runs:

runs = mlflow.search_runs(experiment_ids=[ "1234-5678-90AB-CDEFG" ])
runs[runs.status == "FINISHED"]

Getting metrics, parameters, artifacts and models

The method search_runs returns a Pandas Dataframe containing a limited amount of information by default. You can get Python objects if needed, which may be useful to get details about them. Use the output_format parameter to control how output is returned:

runs = mlflow.search_runs(
    experiment_ids=[ "1234-5678-90AB-CDEFG" ],

Details can then be accessed from the info member. The following sample shows how to get the run_id:

last_run = runs[-1]
print("Last run ID:", last_run.info.run_id)

Getting params and metrics from a run

When runs are returned using output_format="list", you can easily access parameters using the key data:


In the same way, you can query metrics:


For metrics that contain multiple values (for instance, a loss curve, or a PR curve), only the last logged value of the metric is returned. If you want to retrieve all the values of a given metric, uses mlflow.get_metric_history method. This method requires you to use the MlflowClient:

client = mlflow.tracking.MlflowClient()
client.get_metric_history("1234-5678-90AB-CDEFG", "log_loss")

Getting artifacts from a run

Any artifact logged by a run can be queried by MLflow. Artifacts can't be access using the run object itself and the MLflow client should be used instead:

client = mlflow.tracking.MlflowClient()

The method above will list all the artifacts logged in the run, but they will remain stored in the artifacts store (Azure ML storage). To download any of them, use the method download_artifact:

file_path = mlflow.artifacts.download_artifacts(
    run_id="1234-5678-90AB-CDEFG", artifact_path="feature_importance_weight.png"


MLflow 2.0 advisory: In legacy versions of MLflow (<2.0), use the method MlflowClient.download_artifacts() instead.

Getting models from a run

Models can also be logged in the run and then retrieved directly from it. To retrieve it, you need to know the artifact's path where it is stored. The method list_artifacats can be used to find artifacts that are representing a model since MLflow models are always folders. You can download a model by indicating the path where the model is stored using the download_artifact method:

model_local_path = mlflow.artifacts.download_artifacts(
  run_id="1234-5678-90AB-CDEFG", artifact_path=artifact_path

You can then load the model back from the downloaded artifacts using the typical function load_model:

model = mlflow.xgboost.load_model(model_local_path)


The previous example assumes the model was created using xgboost. Change it to the flavor applies to your case.

MLflow also allows you to both operations at once and download and load the model in a single instruction. MLflow will download the model to a temporary folder and load it from there. The method load_model uses an URI format to indicate from where the model has to be retrieved. In the case of loading a model from a run, the URI structure is as follows:

model = mlflow.xgboost.load_model(f"runs:/{last_run.info.run_id}/{artifact_path}")


You can also load models from the registry using MLflow. View loading MLflow models with MLflow for details.

Getting child (nested) runs

MLflow supports the concept of child (nested) runs. They are useful when you need to spin off training routines requiring being tracked independently from the main training process. Hyper-parameter tuning optimization processes or Azure Machine Learning pipelines are typical examples of jobs that generate multiple child runs. You can query all the child runs of a specific run using the property tag mlflow.parentRunId, which contains the run ID of the parent run.

hyperopt_run = mlflow.last_active_run()
child_runs = mlflow.search_runs(

Compare jobs and models in AzureML studio (preview)

To compare and evaluate the quality of your jobs and models in AzureML Studio, use the preview panel to enable the feature. Once enabled, you can compare the parameters, metrics, and tags between the jobs and/or models you selected.

Screenshot of the preview panel showing how to compare jobs and models in AzureML studio.

The MLflow with Azure ML notebooks demonstrate and expand upon concepts presented in this article.

Support matrix for querying runs and experiments

The MLflow SDK exposes several methods to retrieve runs, including options to control what is returned and how. Use the following table to learn about which of those methods are currently supported in MLflow when connected to Azure Machine Learning:

Feature Supported by MLflow Supported by Azure ML
Ordering runs by run fields (like start_time, end_time, etc)
Ordering runs by attributes 1
Ordering runs by metrics 1
Ordering runs by parameters 1
Ordering runs by tags 1
Filtering runs by run fields (like start_time, end_time, etc) 1
Filtering runs by attributes 1
Filtering runs by metrics
Filtering runs by metrics with special characters (escaped)
Filtering runs by parameters
Filtering runs by tags
Filtering runs with numeric comparators (metrics) including =, !=, >, >=, <, and <=
Filtering runs with string comparators (params, tags, and attributes): = and != 2
Filtering runs with string comparators (params, tags, and attributes): LIKE/ILIKE
Filtering runs with comparators AND
Filtering runs with comparators OR
Renaming experiments


  • 1 Check the section Getting runs inside an experiment for instructions and examples on how to achieve the same functionality in Azure ML.
  • 2 != for tags not supported.

Next steps