1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

.NET remoting: A framework that enables objects executing within the logical subdivisions of application domains and contexts to interact with one another across .NET remoting boundaries.

Application Destination (AD): The endpoint to which a message is delivered. For fuller information, see [WSRM1-0], [WSRM1-1], and [WSRM1-2].

application domain: A virtual process space within which managed code applications are hosted and executed. It is possible to have multiple managed code applications running inside a single process. Each managed code application runs within its own application domain and is isolated from other applications that are running in separate application domains. An application domain has a unique identifier used as part of the identifying key on a state server when storing and retrieving session data.

Application Source: Defined in [WSRM1-1] as the endpoint that sends a message.

binding: The string representation of the protocol sequence, NetworkAddress, and optionally the endpoint. Also referred to as "string binding". For more information, see [C706] section "String Bindings".

callback context: The context that is required for a server to make callbacks to a client. A callback context consists of an endpoint reference for a client endpoint with an optional context identifier.

CardSpace: A specialized meta-identity system that helps in managing multiple digital identities, regardless of the kinds of security tokens that they use.

client: A computer on which the remote procedure call (RPC) client is executing.

Client-Activated Object (CAO): A Marshaled Server Object (MSO) that requires an explicit activation message to create the Server Object.

common language runtime (CLR): A runtime library that acts as an agent to manages code at execution time, providing core services such as memory management, thread management, and remoting, while also enforcing strict type safety and other forms of code accuracy that promote security and robustness. The Microsoft implementation of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), as specified in [ECMA-335].

connection: A time-bounded association between two endpoints that allows the two endpoints to exchange messages.

context: An abstract concept that represents an association between a resource and a set of messages that are exchanged between a client and a server. A context is uniquely identified by a context identifier.

data service: A server-side application that implements the OData protocol for the purpose of enabling clients to publish and edit resources. The resources exposed by data services are described by using the EDM, as specified in [MC-CSDL].

directory service (DS): A service that stores and organizes information about a computer network's users and network shares, and that allows network administrators to manage users' access to the shares. See also Active Directory.

discovery: The process used to discover other nodes in the mesh of interest.

discovery service: The service that is used to discover other nodes. The Peer Channel Protocol [MC-PRCH] can use PNRP [MS-PNRP] or any other service implementing the Peer Channel Custom Resolver Protocol [MC-PRCR] to discover other nodes.

Domain Name System (DNS): A hierarchical, distributed database that contains mappings of domain names to various types of data, such as IP addresses. DNS enables the location of computers and services by user-friendly names, and it also enables the discovery of other information stored in the database.

Entity Data Model (EDM): A set of concepts that describes the structure of data, regardless of its stored form.

Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML): An XML schema that defines the appearance and some aspects of the behavior of an application's user interface.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): An application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.

lease object: A type of MSO that contains methods that control the lifetime of a server object. Although a lease object is also a server object, it does not have a lease object of its own; its lifetime is bound by the lifetime of the associated server object.

managed code: Code that is executed by the common language runtime (CLR) environment rather than directly by the operating system. Managed code applications gain CLR services, such as automatic garbage collection, runtime type checking, and security support. These services provide uniform behavior that is independent of platform and language.

mesh: A network of nodes that are all identified with the same mesh name.

named pipe: A named, one-way, or duplex pipe for communication between a pipe server and one or more pipe clients.

node: A computer system that is configured as a member of a cluster. That is, the computer has the necessary software installed and configured to participate in the cluster, and the cluster configuration includes this computer as a member.

PeerNodeAddress: A structure that contains the URI of a node and a set of IP addresses on which the client is listening ([MC-PRCR] section

proxy: A network node that accepts network traffic originating from one network agent and transmits it to another network agent.

reliable messaging destination (RMD): An endpoint that receives a message. For more information, see [WSRM1-0], [WSRM1-1], and [WSRM1-2].

reliable messaging source (RMS): An endpoint that sends a message. For more information, see [WSRM1-0], [WSRM1-1], and [WSRM1-2].

RemoteActivationService: A registered Server-Activated Object (SAO) that implements the IActivator interface ([MS-NRLS] section 3.1). The Server Object URI of the SAO is "RemoteActivationService.rem".

resource: Any component that a computer can access that can read, write, and process data. This includes internal components (such as a disk drive), a service, or an application running on and managed by the cluster on a network that is used to access a file.

RM Destination: Defined in [WSRM1-1] as the endpoint that receives messages that are transmitted reliably from an RM Source.

RM Source: Defined in [WSRM1-1] as the endpoint that transmits messages reliably to an RM Destination.

security token: An opaque message or data packet produced by a Generic Security Services (GSS)-style authentication package and carried by the application protocol. The application has no visibility into the contents of the token.

server: A computer on which the remote procedure call (RPC) server is executing.

server object: Part of the Remoting Data Model. A server object is an instance of a Server Type. A server object is either an SAO or an MSO.

Server Object Reference: A representation of an SAO or MSO that can be passed between a client and a server. It contains sufficient information to construct a proxy to invoke Remote Methods on the SAO or MSO.

Server Object URI: A relative URI that identifies a Server Object in a given server. It is the path part of Request URI, excluding the leading forward slash (/).

server-activated object (SAO): A server object that is created on demand in response to a client request. See also marshaled server object.

SOAP: A lightweight protocol for exchanging structured information in a decentralized, distributed environment. SOAP uses XML technologies to define an extensible messaging framework, which provides a message construct that can be exchanged over a variety of underlying protocols. The framework has been designed to be independent of any particular programming model and other implementation-specific semantics. SOAP 1.2 supersedes SOAP 1.1. See [SOAP1.2-1/2003].

Sponsor: An MSO that is implemented by clients to participate in the renewal process of a Server Object's lifetime.

Time-To-Live (TTL): The time duration for which a Server Object is available.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): A protocol used with the Internet Protocol (IP) to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet. TCP handles keeping track of the individual units of data (called packets) that a message is divided into for efficient routing through the Internet.

transmit: Defined in [WSRM1-1] as the act of writing a message to a network connection.

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): A string that identifies a resource. The URI is an addressing mechanism defined in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [RFC3986].

unmanaged code: Code that does not target the common language runtime (CLR).

User Datagram Protocol (UDP): The connectionless protocol within TCP/IP that corresponds to the transport layer in the ISO/OSI reference model.

web server: A server computer that hosts websites and responds to requests from applications.

web service: A software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network, using XML-based standards and open transport protocols.

Windows Communication Foundation (WCF): A framework for building connected service-oriented applications.

Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF): A framework for developing standalone and browser-hosted applications.

Windows Workflow Foundation (WF): A framework that provides a programming model, an in-process workflow engine, and a workflow designer to implement long-running processes as workflows within .NET applications.