1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) character set: A character set defined by a code page approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The term "ANSI" as used to signify Windows code pages is a historical reference and a misnomer that persists in the Windows community. The source of this misnomer stems from the fact that the Windows code page 1252 was originally based on an ANSI draft, which became International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard 8859-1 [ISO/IEC-8859-1]. In Windows, the ANSI character set can be any of the following code pages: 1252, 1250, 1251, 1253, 1254, 1255, 1256, 1257, 1258, 874, 932, 936, 949, or 950. For example, "ANSI application" is usually a reference to a non-Unicode or code-page-based application. Therefore, "ANSI character set" is often misused to refer to one of the character sets defined by a Windows code page that can be used as an active system code page; for example, character sets defined by code page 1252 or character sets defined by code page 950. Windows is now based on Unicode, so the use of ANSI character sets is strongly discouraged unless they are used to interoperate with legacy applications or legacy data.

class identifier (CLSID): A GUID that identifies a software component; for instance, a DCOM object class or a COM class.

clipboard: A program provided by the operating system that enables local data transfer between applications by using the cut, copy, and paste operations.

color matching: The conversion of a color, sent from its original color space, to its visually closest color in the destination color space. See also Image Color Management (ICM).

container application: An application that creates documents that store reference data from other applications.

container document: A document that stores or references data from more than one application.

creating application: An application whose data is stored in or referenced by documents from other applications.

dithering: A form of digital halftoning.

drive letter: One of the 26 alphabetical characters A-Z, in uppercase or lowercase, that is assigned to a volume. Drive letters serve as a namespace through which data on the volume can be accessed. A volume with a drive letter can be referred to with the drive letter followed by a colon (for example, C:).

embedded object: An object that is created by using one application and is hosted in a document that was created by using another application. Embedding an object, rather than inserting or pasting it, ensures that the object retains its original format. Users can double-click an embedded object and edit it with the toolbars and menus from the application that was used to create it. See also Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).

Image Color Management (ICM): Technology that ensures that a color image, graphic, or text object is rendered as closely as possible to its original intent on any device despite differences in imaging technologies and color capabilities between devices.

linked object: An object that is inserted into a document and continues to exist in a separate source file. If the object in the source file changes, the object in the document is updated automatically to reflect those changes.

little-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

native data: The data that constitutes the state of an embedded object. The only entity that can create and process the data is the creating application.

n-up printing: The act of arranging multiple logical pages on a physical sheet of paper.

path: When referring to a file path on a file system, a hierarchical sequence of folders. When referring to a connection to a storage device, a connection through which a machine can communicate with the storage device.

presentation data: Data that is required to display the linked or embedded object within the container application.

printer driver: The interface component between the operating system and the printer device. It is responsible for processing the application data into a page description language (PDL) that can be interpreted by the printer device.

Unicode: A character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium that represents almost all of the written languages of the world. The Unicode standard [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] provides three forms (UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32) and seven schemes (UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-16 BE, UTF-16 LE, UTF-32, UTF-32 LE, and UTF-32 BE).

Unicode string: A Unicode 8-bit string is an ordered sequence of 8-bit units, a Unicode 16-bit string is an ordered sequence of 16-bit code units, and a Unicode 32-bit string is an ordered sequence of 32-bit code units. In some cases, it could be acceptable not to terminate with a terminating null character. Unless otherwise specified, all Unicode strings follow the UTF-16LE encoding scheme with no Byte Order Mark (BOM).

Universal Naming Convention (UNC): A string format that specifies the location of a resource. For more information, see [MS-DTYP] section 2.2.57.

value: A data element associated with a key.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.