Design forms for performance in model-driven apps

Building experiences where tasks can be completed quickly and efficiently is crucial to user satisfaction. Model-driven apps can be highly customized to create experiences that meet the needs of your users, but it is important to know how to effectively code, build, and run model-driven apps that load quickly when a user opens and navigates in your app while working on daily tasks. Performance has been shown to be a key driver of dissatisfaction of an app when it is not optimized for performance.

Intelligent customizations and performant forms are important aspects to building highly efficient and productive forms. It's also important to make sure you're building highly productive forms with the best practices in user interface design and layout. For information about designing forms for efficiency and productivity, see Design productive main forms in model-driven apps.

It is also important to ensure users are on recommended and supported devices and minimum required specifications. More information: Supported web browsers and mobile devices

Working with data and tabs

This section covers how controls that display data and tabs impact form performance.

Significance of the default tab

The default tab is the first expanded tab on a form. It plays a special role in the loading of a form page. By design, the controls of the default tab are always rendered when opening a record. Specifically, the control initialization logic, such as data retrieval, is invoked for every control on the tab.

In contrast, a secondary tab does not perform this initialization on its controls when the form is initially loaded. Instead, the control initialization occurs at the time the secondary tab is opened either through user interaction or calling the setFocus client API method. This provides an opportunity to shelter the initial form load from excessive control processing by placing certain controls in secondary tabs instead of the default tab. Thus, the control placement strategy can have a significant effect on the responsiveness of the initial form load. A more responsive default tab provides a better overall experience for modifying important fields, interacting with the command bar, and exploring other tabs and sections.

Always put controls that are used the most at the top of your default tab. Layout and information architecture is not only important for performance but also to improve productivity when users interact with data on the form. More information: Design productive main forms in model-driven apps

Data-driven controls

Controls that require extra data beyond the primary record produce the most strain on form responsiveness and loading speed. These controls fetch data over the network and often involve a waiting period (seen as progress indicators) because it can take time to transmit the data.

Some of the data-driven controls include:

Keep only the most frequently used of these controls on the default tab. The remaining data-driven controls should be distributed into secondary tabs to allow the default tab to load quickly. Furthermore, this layout strategy reduces the chance of fetching data that ends up being unused.

There are other controls that are less impactful than the data-driven controls but can still participate in the above layout strategy in order to achieve the best performance. These controls include:

Web browser

This section covers good practices to use with web browsers.

Don't open new windows

The openForm client API method allows a parameter option to display a form in a new window. Don't use this parameter or set it to false. Setting it to false will ensure the openForm method performs the default behavior of displaying the form using the existing window. It is also possible to directly call the JavaScript function from a custom script or another application; however, this should also be avoided. Opening a new window means that all of the page resources need to be fetched and loaded from scratch since the page is unable to leverage the in-memory data caching capabilities between a previously loaded form and the form in a new window. As an alternative to opening new windows, consider using the multisession experience that allows records to be opened in multiple tabs while still maximizing the performance benefits of client caching.

Use modern browsers

Using the most up-to-date web browser is key to ensuring your model-driven app runs as fast as possible. The reason for this is that many of the performance improvements can only be used in the newer modern browsers.

For example, if your organization has older versions of Firefox, non-Chromium-based browsers, and so on, many of the performance gains that are built into a model-driven app will not be available in the older browser versions because they don't support features that the app depends on to run quickly and smoothly.

In most cases, you can expect to see page load improvements by just switching to Microsoft Edge, updating to the latest current browser version from an older version, or moving to a modern Chromium-based browser.

JavaScript customization

This section covers how to make intelligent customizations when you use JavaScript that help you build performant forms and pages in a model-driven app.

Using JavaScript with forms

The ability for forms to be customized by JavaScript provides professional developers great flexibility over how a form looks and behaves. The improper use of this flexibility can negatively impact form performance. Developers should use the following strategies to maximize form performance when implementing JavaScript customizations.

Use asynchronous network requests when requesting data

Request data asynchronously rather than synchronously when extra data is necessary for customizations. For events that support waiting for asynchronous code like the form OnLoad and form OnSave events, event handlers should return a Promise in order for the platform to wait until the Promise is settled. The platform will show an appropriate UI while the user waits for the event to complete.

For events that do not support waiting for asynchronous code, like the form OnChange event, you can use a workaround to stop interaction with a form while the code is doing an asynchronous request by using showProgressIndicator. This is better than using synchronous requests because users will still be able to interact with other parts of the application as a progress indicator is displayed.

Here's an example using asynchronous code in synchronous extension points.

//Only do this if an extension point does not yet support asynchronous code
try {
	await Xrm.WebApi.retrieveRecord("settings_entity", "7333e80e-9b0f-49b5-92c8-9b48d621c37c");
	//do other logic with data here
} catch (error) {
	//do other logic with error here
} finally {

// Or using .then/.finally
Xrm.Utility.showProgressIndicator("Checking settings...");
Xrm.WebApi.retrieveRecord("settings_entity", "7333e80e-9b0f-49b5-92c8-9b48d621c37c")
		(data) => {
			//do other logic with data here
		(error) => {
			//do other logic with error here

You should be careful when using asynchronous code in an event handler that does not support waiting for asynchronous code. This is particularly true for code that needs an action to be taken or handled on the resolution of the asynchronous code. Asynchronous code can cause issues if the resolution handler expects the application context to remain the same as it was when the asynchronous code was started. Your code should check that the user is in the same context after each asynchronous continuation point.

For example, there may be code in an event handler to make a network request and change a control to be disabled based on the response data. Before the response from the request is received, the user may have interacted with the control or navigated to a different page. Because the user is on a different page, the form context may not be available, which might lead to errors, or there might be other undesired behavior.

Async support in form OnLoad and form OnSave events

The form OnLoad and OnSave events support handlers that return promises. The events will wait for any promises returned by a handler to resolve, up to a timeout period. This support can be enabled via app settings.

More information:

Limit the amount of data requested during form load

Only request the minimum amount of data that is necessary to perform business logic on a form. Cache the data that is requested as much as possible, especially for data that doesn’t change often or doesn’t need to be fresh. For example, imagine there is a form that requests data from a setting table. Based on data in the setting table, the form might choose to hide a section of the form. In this case, the JavaScript can cache data in sessionStorage so that data is only requested once per session (onLoad1). A stale-while-revalidate strategy might also be used where the JavaScript uses the data from sessionStorage while requesting data for the next navigation to the form (onLoad2). Finally, a deduplication strategy could be used in case a handler is called multiple times in a row (onLoad3).

const SETTING_ENTITY_NAME = "settings_entity";
const SETTING_FIELD_NAME = "settingField1";

// Retrieve setting value once per session
async function onLoad1(executionContext) {
	let settingValue = sessionStorage.getItem(SETTING_VALUE_SESSION_STORAGE_KEY);

	// Ensure there is a stored setting value to use
	if (settingValue === null || settingValue === undefined) {
		settingValue = await requestSettingValue();

	// Do logic with setting value here

// Retrieve setting value with stale-while-revalidate strategy
async function onLoad2(executionContext) {
	let settingValue = sessionStorage.getItem(SETTING_VALUE_SESSION_STORAGE_KEY);

    // Revalidate, but only await if session storage value is not present
	const requestPromise = requestSettingValue();

	// Ensure there is a stored setting value to use the first time in a session
	if (settingValue === null || settingValue === undefined) {
		settingValue = await requestPromise;
	// Do logic with setting value here

// Retrieve setting value with stale-while-revalidate and deduplication strategy
let requestPromise;
async function onLoad3(executionContext) {
	let settingValue = sessionStorage.getItem(SETTING_VALUE_SESSION_STORAGE_KEY);

	// Request setting value again but don't wait on it
	// In case this handler fires twice, don’t make the same request again if it is already in flight
	// Additional logic can be added so that this is done less than once per page
	if (!requestPromise) {
		requestPromise = requestSettingValue().finally(() => {
			requestPromise = undefined;

	// Ensure there is a stored setting value to use the first time in a session
	if (settingValue === null || settingValue === undefined) {
		settingValue = await requestPromise;
	// Do logic with setting value here

async function requestSettingValue() {
	try {
		const data = await Xrm.WebApi.retrieveRecord(
		try {
		} catch (error) {
			// Handle sessionStorage error
		} finally {
			return data[SETTING_FIELD_NAME];
	} catch (error) {
		// Handle retrieveRecord error   

Use information available in the client API rather than make requests. For example, rather than request a user’s security roles on form load, you can use getGlobalContext.userSettings.roles.

Load code only when it’s needed

Load as much code as needed for events for a particular form. If you have code that is only for form A and form B, it shouldn't be included in a library that is loaded for form C. It should be in its own library.

Avoid loading libraries in the OnLoad event if they are only used for the OnChange or OnSave events. Instead, load them in those events. This way the platform can defer loading them until after the form loads. More information: Optimize form performance

Remove usage of console APIs in production code

Don't use the console API methods such as console.log in production code. Logging data to the console can significantly increase memory demand and might prevent data from being cleaned up in memory. This can lead to the app becoming slower over time and eventually crashing.

Avoid memory leaks

Memory leaks in your code can lead to slower performance over time and eventually cause your app to crash. Memory leaks occur when the application fails to release memory when no longer needed. With all customizations and code components on your form, you should:

  • Thoroughly consider and test scenarios for anything responsible for cleaning up memory, like classes responsible for managing lifecycle of objects.
  • Cleanup all event listeners and subscriptions, especially if it’s on the window object.
  • Cleanup all timers like setInterval.
  • Avoid, limit, and cleanup references to global or static objects.

For custom control components, cleanup can be done in the destroy method.

For more information on fixing memory problems, go to this Edge developer documentation.

Tools you can use to help make apps performant

This section describes the tools that can help you understand performance issues and offer recommendations about how to optimize your customizations in model-driven apps.

Performance insights

Performance insights is a self-service tool for enterprise app makers that analyzes runtime telemetry data and provides a prioritized list of recommendations to help improve the performance of model-driven apps. This feature provides a daily set of analytic insights related to the performance of a Power Apps model-driven or customer engagement app, such as Dynamics 365 Sales or Dynamics 365 Service, with recommendations and actionable items. Enterprise app makers can view detailed performance insights at an app-level in Power Apps. More information: What are performance insights? (preview)

Solution checker

Solution checker is a powerful tool that can analyze client and server customizations for performance or reliability issues. It can parse client-side JavaScript, form XML, and .NET server-side plug-ins and give targeted insights into what may slow end users down. We recommend that you run solution checker each time you publish changes in a development environment, so that any performance concerns are surfaced before reaching end users. More information: Use solution checker to validate your model-driven apps in Power Apps

Some examples of performance-related issues found with solution checker:

Object checker

Object checker runs real-time diagnostics on component objects within your solution. If issues are detected, a recommendation is returned that describes how to fix the issue. More information: Use object checker to diagnose a solution component (preview)

Next steps

Design productive main forms in model-driven apps