Configuring Full-Text Linguistic Components

Beginning in SQL Server 2008, full-text search supports almost 50 diverse languages, such as English, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Bengali, and Hindi. For a complete list of the supported full-text languages, see sys.fulltext_languages (Transact-SQL). Each of the columns contained in the full-text index is associated with a Microsoft Windows locale identifier (LCID) that equates to a language that is supported by full-text search. For example, LCID 1033 equates to U.S English, and LCID 2057 equates to British English. For each supported full-text language, SQL Server provides linguistic components that support indexing and querying full-text data that is stored in that language.

Language-specific components include a word breaker and a stemmer. A word breaker finds word boundaries based on the lexical rules of a given language (word breaking). Each word breaker is associated with a stemmer that conjugates verbs for the same language. For more information, see Word Breakers and Stemmers.

In addition, beginning in SQL Server 2008, a system stoplist is provided that contains a basic set stopwords (also known as noise words). A stopword is a word that does not help the search and is ignored by full-text queries. For example, for the English locale words such as "a", "and", "is", and "the" are considered stopwords. Typically, you will need to configure one or more thesaurus files and stoplists. For more information, see Stopwords and Stoplists.

SQL Server also installs a thesaurus file for each full-text language, as well as a global thesaurus file. The installed thesaurus files are essentially empty, but you can edit them to define synonyms for a specific language or business scenario. By developing a thesaurus tailored to your full-text data, you can effectively broaden the scope of full-text queries on that data. For more information, see Thesaurus Configuration.

Indexing a document in a varbinary, varbinary(max), image, or xml data type column requires a filter to perform extra processing. The filter must be specific to the document type (.doc, .pdf, .xls, .xml, and so forth). For more information, see Full-Text Search Filters.


Word breakers (and stemmers) and filters run in the filter daemon host process (fdhost.exe). For information about this process, see Full-Text Search Architecture.