Identify charts of accounts


Introduction to charts of accounts

A chart of accounts (COA) is an index of all the financial accounts in the general ledger of a company. In short, it is an organizational tool that provides a digestible breakdown of all the financial transactions that a company conducted during a specific accounting period, separated into subcategories.

Configure ledger and journal setup

You can use journals quickly and efficiently once they are set up. Several components must be set up to use general journals.


Each legal entity has one ledger, and each ledger can be linked to one chart of accounts. Multiple ledgers can be linked to the same chart of accounts, which allows you to share the same chart of accounts with more than one legal entity. You also need to indicate which account structure or structures to attach to the ledger for each legal entity.

Balancing financial dimension

Interunit accounting is the requirement that you generate a balance sheet for a specific financial dimension. Therefore, all accounting entries made to the general ledger must be balanced for the values of the financial dimension, which is referred to as the balancing financial dimension. The balancing financial dimension used for interunit accounting is selected on the Ledger page in General ledger > Ledger setup > Ledger. When you enter the balancing financial dimension in Finance, every accounting entry must balance at the total level and at the level of the financial dimension values.

Screenshot of the selection options for the balancing financial dimension field.

If the accounting entry does not balance at the level of the financial dimension values, additional accounting entries are created automatically to balance the accounting entry.

After adding account structures, you will want to link them to the ledger.

Journal setup

Finance includes manually generated journals and system-generated journals.

Examples of system-generated journals are those that come from the subledgers of Accounts receivable and Accounts payable.

Manual journal entries are generated by postings entered into the system, such as a monthly recurring insurance expense or a one-off redistribution of revenue across departments. When you use a manual journal entry, the transactions are not posted immediately. Before you can post a manual entry, journals can be in the following states:

  • Changed

  • Reviewed

  • Approved

  • Deleted

Journal approval is optional.

In Finance, you can use journals to do the following tasks:

  • Control different kinds of entries - You can apply an approval system so that special journals are posted only after they are approved.

  • Review data imported from external ledger systems - You can ensure that all valid fields contain a value and that all restrictions for the transaction are fulfilled.

You should make sure that the necessary voucher series is set up before you create journals. You can set up number sequences and attach them to the appropriate references.

You cannot use both the manual approval system and the workflow approval system for the same journal name. You can use the following posting layers:

  • Current - Default layer that is used

  • Operations – Used for entry of transactions

  • Tax – Where you record transactions that impact tax reporting

In the Detail level list, you can specify how journal lines should be summarized.

  • Details – Every instance of an account number in the journal lines is posted as a separate account transaction.

  • Summary – A summation of journal lines into one transaction is performed automatically during posting if voucher with date, account number, dimension, and currency code contain the same values.

It is important to know that the summation is not performed on transactions with sales tax.

Transaction types

You can add other text to default descriptions for transaction types related to the following document types:

  • Customer invoices

  • Customer credit notes

  • Customer cash payments

  • Vendor payments

  • Sales orders

  • Purchase orders

  • Inventory journals

  • Master planning (MRP)

  • Fixed assets

Continue on to explore financial dimensions and dimension set concepts.