Quickstart: Webverkeer omleiden met Azure Application Gateway - ARM-sjabloon

In deze quickstart gebruikt u een ARM-sjabloon (Azure Resource Manager-sjabloon) om een Azure Application Gateway te maken. Vervolgens test u de toepassingsgateway om er zeker van te zijn dat deze juist werkt.

application gateway-resources

Een Resource Manager-sjabloon is een JavaScript Object Notation-bestand (JSON) dat de infrastructuur en configuratie van uw project definieert. Voor de sjabloon is declaratieve syntaxis vereist. In declaratieve syntaxis beschrijft u de beoogde implementatie zonder dat u de reeks programmeeropdrachten voor het maken van de implementatie hoeft te schrijven.

U kunt deze quickstart ook voltooien met via de Azure-portal, Azure PowerShell of Azure CLI.

Als uw omgeving voldoet aan de vereisten en u benkend bent met het gebruik van ARM-sjablonen, selecteert u de knop Implementeren naar Azure. De sjabloon wordt in Azure Portal geopend.

Implementeren op Azure

Vereisten

De sjabloon controleren

Omwille van de eenvoud maakt deze sjabloon een eenvoudige installatie met een openbaar front-end-IP-adres, een eenvoudige listener voor het hosten van één site op de toepassingsgateway, een eenvoudige regel voor het doorsturen van aanvragen en twee virtuele machines in de back-endpool.

De sjabloon die in deze quickstart wordt gebruikt, komt uit Azure-quickstartsjablonen

{
  "$schema": "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2019-04-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
  "contentVersion": "1.0.0.0",
  "metadata": {
    "_generator": {
      "name": "bicep",
      "version": "0.5.6.12127",
      "templateHash": "5093932345902341724"
    }
  },
  "parameters": {
    "adminUsername": {
      "type": "string",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Admin username for the backend servers"
      }
    },
    "adminPassword": {
      "type": "secureString",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Password for the admin account on the backend servers"
      }
    },
    "location": {
      "type": "string",
      "defaultValue": "[resourceGroup().location]",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Location for all resources."
      }
    },
    "vmSize": {
      "type": "string",
      "defaultValue": "Standard_B2ms",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Size of the virtual machine."
      }
    }
  },
  "variables": {
    "virtualMachineName": "myVM",
    "virtualNetworkName": "myVNet",
    "networkInterfaceName": "net-int",
    "ipconfigName": "ipconfig",
    "publicIPAddressName": "public_ip",
    "nsgName": "vm-nsg",
    "applicationGateWayName": "myAppGateway",
    "virtualNetworkPrefix": "10.0.0.0/16",
    "subnetPrefix": "10.0.0.0/24",
    "backendSubnetPrefix": "10.0.1.0/24"
  },
  "resources": [
    {
      "copy": {
        "name": "nsg",
        "count": "[length(range(0, 2))]"
      },
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/networkSecurityGroups",
      "apiVersion": "2021-05-01",
      "name": "[format('{0}{1}', variables('nsgName'), add(range(0, 2)[copyIndex()], 1))]",
      "location": "[parameters('location')]",
      "properties": {
        "securityRules": [
          {
            "name": "RDP",
            "properties": {
              "protocol": "Tcp",
              "sourcePortRange": "*",
              "destinationPortRange": "3389",
              "sourceAddressPrefix": "*",
              "destinationAddressPrefix": "*",
              "access": "Allow",
              "priority": 300,
              "direction": "Inbound"
            }
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "copy": {
        "name": "publicIPAddress",
        "count": "[length(range(0, 3))]"
      },
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses",
      "apiVersion": "2021-05-01",
      "name": "[format('{0}{1}', variables('publicIPAddressName'), range(0, 3)[copyIndex()])]",
      "location": "[parameters('location')]",
      "sku": {
        "name": "Standard"
      },
      "properties": {
        "publicIPAddressVersion": "IPv4",
        "publicIPAllocationMethod": "Static",
        "idleTimeoutInMinutes": 4
      }
    },
    {
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks",
      "apiVersion": "2021-05-01",
      "name": "[variables('virtualNetworkName')]",
      "location": "[parameters('location')]",
      "properties": {
        "addressSpace": {
          "addressPrefixes": [
            "[variables('virtualNetworkPrefix')]"
          ]
        },
        "subnets": [
          {
            "name": "myAGSubnet",
            "properties": {
              "addressPrefix": "[variables('subnetPrefix')]",
              "privateEndpointNetworkPolicies": "Enabled",
              "privateLinkServiceNetworkPolicies": "Enabled"
            }
          },
          {
            "name": "myBackendSubnet",
            "properties": {
              "addressPrefix": "[variables('backendSubnetPrefix')]",
              "privateEndpointNetworkPolicies": "Enabled",
              "privateLinkServiceNetworkPolicies": "Enabled"
            }
          }
        ],
        "enableDdosProtection": false,
        "enableVmProtection": false
      }
    },
    {
      "copy": {
        "name": "virtualMachine",
        "count": "[length(range(0, 2))]"
      },
      "type": "Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines",
      "apiVersion": "2021-11-01",
      "name": "[format('{0}{1}', variables('virtualMachineName'), add(range(0, 2)[copyIndex()], 1))]",
      "location": "[parameters('location')]",
      "properties": {
        "hardwareProfile": {
          "vmSize": "[parameters('vmSize')]"
        },
        "storageProfile": {
          "imageReference": {
            "publisher": "MicrosoftWindowsServer",
            "offer": "WindowsServer",
            "sku": "2016-Datacenter",
            "version": "latest"
          },
          "osDisk": {
            "osType": "Windows",
            "createOption": "FromImage",
            "caching": "ReadWrite",
            "managedDisk": {
              "storageAccountType": "StandardSSD_LRS"
            },
            "diskSizeGB": 127
          }
        },
        "osProfile": {
          "computerName": "[format('{0}{1}', variables('virtualMachineName'), add(range(0, 2)[copyIndex()], 1))]",
          "adminUsername": "[parameters('adminUsername')]",
          "adminPassword": "[parameters('adminPassword')]",
          "windowsConfiguration": {
            "provisionVMAgent": true,
            "enableAutomaticUpdates": true
          },
          "allowExtensionOperations": true
        },
        "networkProfile": {
          "networkInterfaces": [
            {
              "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces', format('{0}{1}', variables('networkInterfaceName'), add(range(0, 2)[copyIndex()], 1)))]"
            }
          ]
        }
      },
      "dependsOn": [
        "networkInterface"
      ]
    },
    {
      "copy": {
        "name": "virtualMachine_IIS",
        "count": "[length(range(0, 2))]"
      },
      "type": "Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/extensions",
      "apiVersion": "2021-11-01",
      "name": "[format('{0}{1}/IIS', variables('virtualMachineName'), add(range(0, 2)[copyIndex()], 1))]",
      "location": "[parameters('location')]",
      "properties": {
        "autoUpgradeMinorVersion": true,
        "publisher": "Microsoft.Compute",
        "type": "CustomScriptExtension",
        "typeHandlerVersion": "1.4",
        "settings": {
          "commandToExecute": "powershell Add-WindowsFeature Web-Server; powershell Add-Content -Path \"C:\\inetpub\\wwwroot\\Default.htm\" -Value $($env:computername)"
        }
      },
      "dependsOn": [
        "virtualMachine"
      ]
    },
    {
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/applicationGateways",
      "apiVersion": "2021-05-01",
      "name": "[variables('applicationGateWayName')]",
      "location": "[parameters('location')]",
      "properties": {
        "sku": {
          "name": "Standard_v2",
          "tier": "Standard_v2"
        },
        "gatewayIPConfigurations": [
          {
            "name": "appGatewayIpConfig",
            "properties": {
              "subnet": {
                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks/subnets', variables('virtualNetworkName'), 'myAGSubnet')]"
              }
            }
          }
        ],
        "frontendIPConfigurations": [
          {
            "name": "appGwPublicFrontendIp",
            "properties": {
              "privateIPAllocationMethod": "Dynamic",
              "publicIPAddress": {
                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses', format('{0}0', variables('publicIPAddressName')))]"
              }
            }
          }
        ],
        "frontendPorts": [
          {
            "name": "port_80",
            "properties": {
              "port": 80
            }
          }
        ],
        "backendAddressPools": [
          {
            "name": "myBackendPool",
            "properties": {}
          }
        ],
        "backendHttpSettingsCollection": [
          {
            "name": "myHTTPSetting",
            "properties": {
              "port": 80,
              "protocol": "Http",
              "cookieBasedAffinity": "Disabled",
              "pickHostNameFromBackendAddress": false,
              "requestTimeout": 20
            }
          }
        ],
        "httpListeners": [
          {
            "name": "myListener",
            "properties": {
              "frontendIPConfiguration": {
                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/applicationGateways/frontendIPConfigurations', variables('applicationGateWayName'), 'appGwPublicFrontendIp')]"
              },
              "frontendPort": {
                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/applicationGateways/frontendPorts', variables('applicationGateWayName'), 'port_80')]"
              },
              "protocol": "Http",
              "requireServerNameIndication": false
            }
          }
        ],
        "requestRoutingRules": [
          {
            "name": "myRoutingRule",
            "properties": {
              "ruleType": "Basic",
              "httpListener": {
                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/applicationGateways/httpListeners', variables('applicationGateWayName'), 'myListener')]"
              },
              "backendAddressPool": {
                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/applicationGateways/backendAddressPools', variables('applicationGateWayName'), 'myBackendPool')]"
              },
              "backendHttpSettings": {
                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/applicationGateways/backendHttpSettingsCollection', variables('applicationGateWayName'), 'myHTTPSetting')]"
              }
            }
          }
        ],
        "enableHttp2": false,
        "autoscaleConfiguration": {
          "minCapacity": 0,
          "maxCapacity": 10
        }
      },
      "dependsOn": [
        "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses', format('{0}{1}', variables('publicIPAddressName'), range(0, 3)[0]))]",
        "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks', variables('virtualNetworkName'))]"
      ]
    },
    {
      "copy": {
        "name": "networkInterface",
        "count": "[length(range(0, 2))]"
      },
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces",
      "apiVersion": "2021-05-01",
      "name": "[format('{0}{1}', variables('networkInterfaceName'), add(range(0, 2)[copyIndex()], 1))]",
      "location": "[parameters('location')]",
      "properties": {
        "ipConfigurations": [
          {
            "name": "[format('{0}{1}', variables('ipconfigName'), add(range(0, 2)[copyIndex()], 1))]",
            "properties": {
              "privateIPAllocationMethod": "Dynamic",
              "publicIPAddress": {
                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses', format('{0}{1}', variables('publicIPAddressName'), add(range(0, 2)[copyIndex()], 1)))]"
              },
              "subnet": {
                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks/subnets', variables('virtualNetworkName'), 'myBackendSubnet')]"
              },
              "primary": true,
              "privateIPAddressVersion": "IPv4",
              "applicationGatewayBackendAddressPools": [
                {
                  "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/applicationGateways/backendAddressPools', variables('applicationGateWayName'), 'myBackendPool')]"
                }
              ]
            }
          }
        ],
        "enableAcceleratedNetworking": false,
        "enableIPForwarding": false,
        "networkSecurityGroup": {
          "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/networkSecurityGroups', format('{0}{1}', variables('nsgName'), add(range(0, 2)[copyIndex()], 1)))]"
        }
      },
      "dependsOn": [
        "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/applicationGateways', variables('applicationGateWayName'))]",
        "nsg",
        "publicIPAddress"
      ]
    }
  ]
}

Er worden meerdere Azure-resources gedefinieerd in de sjabloon:

De sjabloon implementeren

Het ARM-sjabloon implementeren in Azure:

  1. Selecteer Implementeren in Azure om u aan te melden bij Azure, en open de sjabloon. Met de sjabloon maakt u een toepassingsgateway, de netwerkinfrastructuur, en twee virtuele machines in de back-endpool waarop IIS wordt uitgevoerd.

    Implementeren op Azure

  2. Selecteer of maak een resourcegroep, typ de gebruikersnaam en het wachtwoord voor de beheerder van de virtuele machine.

  3. Selecteer Controleren en maken en selecteer vervolgens Maken.

    De implementatie kan 20 minuten of langer duren.

De implementatie valideren

IIS is niet vereist om de toepassingsgateway te maken, maar is geïnstalleerd om te controleren of het maken van de toepassingsgateway in Azure is geslaagd. Gebruik IIS om de toepassingsgateway te testen:

  1. Zoek op de pagina Overzicht het openbare IP-adres voor de toepassingsgateway.Openbaar IP-adres van toepassingsgateway vastleggen U kunt ook Alle resources selecteren, myAGPublicIPAddress invoeren in het zoekvak en dit vervolgens selecteren in de zoekresultaten. Het openbare IP-adres wordt weergegeven op de pagina Overzicht.

  2. Kopieer het openbare IP-adres en plak het in de adresbalk van de browser om het IP-adres te bekijken.

  3. Controleer het antwoord. Een geldig antwoord verifieert dat de toepassingsgateway is gemaakt en verbinding kan maken met de back-end.

    Toepassingsgateway testen

    Vernieuw de browser meerdere keren. Als het goed is, ziet u nu verbindingen naar myVM1 en myVM2.

Resources opschonen

Wanneer u de bij de toepassingsgateway gemaakte resources niet meer nodig hebt, verwijdert u de resourcegroep. Hiermee verwijdert u de toepassingsgateway en alle gerelateerde resources.

Als u de resourcegroep wilt verwijderen, roept u de cmdlet Remove-AzResourceGroup aan:

Remove-AzResourceGroup -Name <your resource group name>

Volgende stappen