Instrukcje: pobieranie pliku w tle

Pobieranie pliku jest typowym zadaniem i często przydaje się do uruchamiania tej potencjalnie czasochłonnej operacji w osobnym wątku. BackgroundWorker Użyj składnika , aby wykonać to zadanie przy użyciu bardzo małego kodu.

Przykład

W poniższym przykładzie kodu pokazano, jak za pomocą BackgroundWorker składnika załadować plik XML z adresu URL. Gdy użytkownik kliknie przycisk Pobierz, program obsługi zdarzeń wywołuje RunWorkerAsync metodę BackgroundWorker składnika, Click aby rozpocząć operację pobierania. Przycisk jest wyłączony na czas pobierania, a następnie włączony po zakończeniu pobierania. Element MessageBox wyświetla zawartość pliku.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Threading;
using System.Windows.Forms;
using System.Xml;

public class Form1 : Form
{
    private BackgroundWorker backgroundWorker1;
    private Button downloadButton;
    private ProgressBar progressBar1;
    private XmlDocument document = null;

    public Form1()
    {
        InitializeComponent();

        // Instantiate BackgroundWorker and attach handlers to its
        // DoWork and RunWorkerCompleted events.
        backgroundWorker1 = new System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker();
        backgroundWorker1.DoWork += new System.ComponentModel.DoWorkEventHandler(this.backgroundWorker1_DoWork);
        backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerCompleted += new System.ComponentModel.RunWorkerCompletedEventHandler(this.backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted);
    }

    private void downloadButton_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        // Start the download operation in the background.
        this.backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync();

        // Disable the button for the duration of the download.
        this.downloadButton.Enabled = false;

        // Once you have started the background thread you
        // can exit the handler and the application will
        // wait until the RunWorkerCompleted event is raised.

        // Or if you want to do something else in the main thread,
        // such as update a progress bar, you can do so in a loop
        // while checking IsBusy to see if the background task is
        // still running.

        while (this.backgroundWorker1.IsBusy)
        {
            progressBar1.Increment(1);
            // Keep UI messages moving, so the form remains
            // responsive during the asynchronous operation.
            Application.DoEvents();
        }
    }

    private void backgroundWorker1_DoWork(
        object sender,
        DoWorkEventArgs e)
    {
        document = new XmlDocument();

        // Uncomment the following line to
        // simulate a noticeable latency.
        //Thread.Sleep(5000);

        // Replace this file name with a valid file name.
        document.Load(@"http://www.tailspintoys.com/sample.xml");
    }

    private void backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted(
        object sender,
        RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs e)
    {
        // Set progress bar to 100% in case it's not already there.
        progressBar1.Value = 100;

        if (e.Error == null)
        {
            MessageBox.Show(document.InnerXml, "Download Complete");
        }
        else
        {
            MessageBox.Show(
                "Failed to download file",
                "Download failed",
                MessageBoxButtons.OK,
                MessageBoxIcon.Error);
        }

        // Enable the download button and reset the progress bar.
        this.downloadButton.Enabled = true;
        progressBar1.Value = 0;
    }

    #region Windows Form Designer generated code

    /// <summary>
    /// Required designer variable.
    /// </summary>
    private System.ComponentModel.IContainer components = null;

    /// <summary>
    /// Clean up any resources being used.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="disposing">true if managed resources should be disposed; otherwise, false.</param>
    protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
    {
        if (disposing && (components != null))
        {
            components.Dispose();
        }
        base.Dispose(disposing);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Required method for Designer support
    /// </summary>
    private void InitializeComponent()
    {
        this.downloadButton = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
        this.progressBar1 = new System.Windows.Forms.ProgressBar();
        this.SuspendLayout();
        //
        // downloadButton
        //
        this.downloadButton.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(12, 12);
        this.downloadButton.Name = "downloadButton";
        this.downloadButton.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(100, 23);
        this.downloadButton.TabIndex = 0;
        this.downloadButton.Text = "Download file";
        this.downloadButton.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
        this.downloadButton.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.downloadButton_Click);
        //
        // progressBar1
        //
        this.progressBar1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(12, 50);
        this.progressBar1.Name = "progressBar1";
        this.progressBar1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(100, 26);
        this.progressBar1.TabIndex = 1;
        //
        // Form1
        //
        this.AutoScaleDimensions = new System.Drawing.SizeF(6F, 13F);
        this.AutoScaleMode = System.Windows.Forms.AutoScaleMode.Font;
        this.ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(133, 104);
        this.Controls.Add(this.progressBar1);
        this.Controls.Add(this.downloadButton);
        this.Name = "Form1";
        this.Text = "Form1";
        this.ResumeLayout(false);
    }

    #endregion
}

static class Program
{
    /// <summary>
    /// The main entry point for the application.
    /// </summary>
    [STAThread]
    static void Main()
    {
        Application.EnableVisualStyles();
        Application.Run(new Form1());
    }
}
Imports System.Collections.Generic
Imports System.ComponentModel
Imports System.Drawing
Imports System.Threading
Imports System.Windows.Forms
Imports System.Xml

Public Class Form1
    Inherits Form

    Private WithEvents downloadButton As Button
    Private WithEvents progressBar1 As ProgressBar
    Private WithEvents backgroundWorker1 As BackgroundWorker
    Private document As XmlDocument = Nothing

    Public Sub New()
        InitializeComponent()
        Me.backgroundWorker1 = New System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker()
    End Sub

    Private Sub downloadButton_Click( _
        ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As EventArgs) _
        Handles downloadButton.Click

        ' Start the download operation in the background.
        Me.backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync()

        ' Disable the button for the duration of the download.
        Me.downloadButton.Enabled = False

        ' Once you have started the background thread you 
        ' can exit the handler and the application will 
        ' wait until the RunWorkerCompleted event is raised.

        ' If you want to do something else in the main thread,
        ' such as update a progress bar, you can do so in a loop 
        ' while checking IsBusy to see if the background task is
        ' still running.
        While Me.backgroundWorker1.IsBusy
            progressBar1.Increment(1)
            ' Keep UI messages moving, so the form remains 
            ' responsive during the asynchronous operation.
            Application.DoEvents()
        End While
    End Sub

    Private Sub backgroundWorker1_DoWork( _
        ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As DoWorkEventArgs) _
        Handles backgroundWorker1.DoWork

        document = New XmlDocument()

        ' Replace this file name with a valid file name.
        document.Load("http://www.tailspintoys.com/sample.xml")

        ' Uncomment the following line to
        ' simulate a noticeable latency.
        'Thread.Sleep(5000);
    End Sub

    Private Sub backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted( _
        ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs) _
        Handles backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerCompleted

        ' Set progress bar to 100% in case it isn't already there.
        progressBar1.Value = 100

        If e.Error Is Nothing Then
            MessageBox.Show(document.InnerXml, "Download Complete")
        Else
            MessageBox.Show("Failed to download file", "Download failed", MessageBoxButtons.OK, MessageBoxIcon.Error)
        End If

        ' Enable the download button and reset the progress bar.
        Me.downloadButton.Enabled = True
        progressBar1.Value = 0
    End Sub

#Region "Windows Form Designer generated code"
    ' Required designer variable.
    Private components As System.ComponentModel.IContainer = Nothing

    ' Clean up any resources being used.
    ' <param name="disposing">true if managed resources should be disposed; otherwise, false.</param>
    Protected Overrides Sub Dispose(ByVal disposing As Boolean)
        If disposing AndAlso (components IsNot Nothing) Then
            components.Dispose()
        End If
        MyBase.Dispose(disposing)
    End Sub

    ' Required method for Designer support - do not modify
    ' the contents of this method with the code editor.
    Private Sub InitializeComponent()
        Me.downloadButton = New System.Windows.Forms.Button
        Me.progressBar1 = New System.Windows.Forms.ProgressBar
        Me.SuspendLayout()
        '
        'downloadButton
        '
        Me.downloadButton.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(12, 12)
        Me.downloadButton.Name = "downloadButton"
        Me.downloadButton.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(100, 23)
        Me.downloadButton.TabIndex = 0
        Me.downloadButton.Text = "Download file"
        Me.downloadButton.UseVisualStyleBackColor = True
        '
        'progressBar1
        '
        Me.progressBar1.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(12, 50)
        Me.progressBar1.Name = "progressBar1"
        Me.progressBar1.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(100, 26)
        Me.progressBar1.TabIndex = 1
        '
        'Form1
        '
        Me.AutoScaleDimensions = New System.Drawing.SizeF(6.0!, 13.0!)
        Me.AutoScaleMode = System.Windows.Forms.AutoScaleMode.Font
        Me.ClientSize = New System.Drawing.Size(136, 104)
        Me.Controls.Add(Me.downloadButton)
        Me.Controls.Add(Me.progressBar1)
        Me.Name = "Form1"
        Me.Text = "Form1"
        Me.ResumeLayout(False)

    End Sub

#End Region
End Class


Public Class Program

    ' The main entry point for the application.
    <STAThread()> _
    Shared Sub Main()
        Application.EnableVisualStyles()
        Application.Run(New Form1())
    End Sub
End Class

Pobieranie pliku

Plik jest pobierany w wątku roboczym BackgroundWorker składnika, który uruchamia procedurę obsługi zdarzeń DoWork . Ten wątek rozpoczyna się, gdy kod wywołuje metodę RunWorkerAsync .

private void backgroundWorker1_DoWork(
    object sender,
    DoWorkEventArgs e)
{
    document = new XmlDocument();

    // Uncomment the following line to
    // simulate a noticeable latency.
    //Thread.Sleep(5000);

    // Replace this file name with a valid file name.
    document.Load(@"http://www.tailspintoys.com/sample.xml");
}
Private Sub backgroundWorker1_DoWork( _
    ByVal sender As Object, _
    ByVal e As DoWorkEventArgs) _
    Handles backgroundWorker1.DoWork

    document = New XmlDocument()

    ' Replace this file name with a valid file name.
    document.Load("http://www.tailspintoys.com/sample.xml")

    ' Uncomment the following line to
    ' simulate a noticeable latency.
    'Thread.Sleep(5000);
End Sub

Oczekiwanie na zakończenie pracy w tle

Procedura downloadButton_Click obsługi zdarzeń pokazuje, jak poczekać, BackgroundWorker aż składnik zakończy zadanie asynchroniczne.

Jeśli chcesz tylko, aby aplikacja reagowała na zdarzenia i nie chce wykonywać żadnej pracy w głównym wątku podczas oczekiwania na ukończenie wątku w tle, po prostu zamknij program obsługi.

Jeśli chcesz kontynuować pracę w wątku głównym, użyj IsBusy właściwości , aby określić, czy BackgroundWorker wątek jest nadal uruchomiony. W tym przykładzie pasek postępu jest aktualizowany podczas przetwarzania pobierania. Pamiętaj, aby wywołać metodę Application.DoEvents , aby zachować czas reakcji interfejsu użytkownika.

private void downloadButton_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    // Start the download operation in the background.
    this.backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync();

    // Disable the button for the duration of the download.
    this.downloadButton.Enabled = false;

    // Once you have started the background thread you
    // can exit the handler and the application will
    // wait until the RunWorkerCompleted event is raised.

    // Or if you want to do something else in the main thread,
    // such as update a progress bar, you can do so in a loop
    // while checking IsBusy to see if the background task is
    // still running.

    while (this.backgroundWorker1.IsBusy)
    {
        progressBar1.Increment(1);
        // Keep UI messages moving, so the form remains
        // responsive during the asynchronous operation.
        Application.DoEvents();
    }
}
Private Sub downloadButton_Click( _
    ByVal sender As Object, _
    ByVal e As EventArgs) _
    Handles downloadButton.Click

    ' Start the download operation in the background.
    Me.backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync()

    ' Disable the button for the duration of the download.
    Me.downloadButton.Enabled = False

    ' Once you have started the background thread you 
    ' can exit the handler and the application will 
    ' wait until the RunWorkerCompleted event is raised.

    ' If you want to do something else in the main thread,
    ' such as update a progress bar, you can do so in a loop 
    ' while checking IsBusy to see if the background task is
    ' still running.
    While Me.backgroundWorker1.IsBusy
        progressBar1.Increment(1)
        ' Keep UI messages moving, so the form remains 
        ' responsive during the asynchronous operation.
        Application.DoEvents()
    End While
End Sub

Wyświetlanie wyniku

Metoda backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted obsługuje RunWorkerCompleted zdarzenie i jest wywoływana po zakończeniu operacji w tle. Ta metoda najpierw sprawdza AsyncCompletedEventArgs.Error właściwość . Jeśli AsyncCompletedEventArgs.Error ma nullwartość , ta metoda wyświetla zawartość pliku. Następnie włącza przycisk pobierania, który został wyłączony po rozpoczęciu pobierania i resetuje pasek postępu.

private void backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted(
    object sender,
    RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs e)
{
    // Set progress bar to 100% in case it's not already there.
    progressBar1.Value = 100;

    if (e.Error == null)
    {
        MessageBox.Show(document.InnerXml, "Download Complete");
    }
    else
    {
        MessageBox.Show(
            "Failed to download file",
            "Download failed",
            MessageBoxButtons.OK,
            MessageBoxIcon.Error);
    }

    // Enable the download button and reset the progress bar.
    this.downloadButton.Enabled = true;
    progressBar1.Value = 0;
}
Private Sub backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted( _
    ByVal sender As Object, _
    ByVal e As RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs) _
    Handles backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerCompleted

    ' Set progress bar to 100% in case it isn't already there.
    progressBar1.Value = 100

    If e.Error Is Nothing Then
        MessageBox.Show(document.InnerXml, "Download Complete")
    Else
        MessageBox.Show("Failed to download file", "Download failed", MessageBoxButtons.OK, MessageBoxIcon.Error)
    End If

    ' Enable the download button and reset the progress bar.
    Me.downloadButton.Enabled = True
    progressBar1.Value = 0
End Sub

Kompilowanie kodu

Ten przykład wymaga:

  • Odwołania do zestawów System.Drawing, System.Windows.Forms i System.Xml.

Niezawodne programowanie

Zawsze sprawdzaj AsyncCompletedEventArgs.Error właściwość w RunWorkerCompleted procedurze obsługi zdarzeń przed podjęciem próby uzyskania dostępu RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs.Result do właściwości lub dowolnego innego obiektu, który mógł mieć wpływ na DoWork program obsługi zdarzeń.

Zobacz też