Write a plug-in


Unsure about entity vs. table? See Developers: Understand terminology in Microsoft Dataverse.

You can use Power Platform Tools for Visual Studio to quickly create and deploy (register) plug-ins. A quickstart article is available to show you how.

A more manual process of writing, registering, and debugging a plug-in is:

  1. Create a .NET Framework Class library project in Visual Studio
  2. Add the Microsoft.CrmSdk.CoreAssemblies NuGet package to the project
  3. Implement the IPlugin interface on classes that will be registered as steps.
  4. Add your code to the Execute method required by the interface
    1. Get references to services you need
    2. Add your business logic
  5. Sign & build the assembly
  6. Test the assembly
    1. Register the assembly in a test environment
    2. Add your registered assembly and steps to an unmanaged solution
    3. Test the behavior of the assembly
    4. Verify expected trace logs are written
    5. Debug the assembly as needed

Content in this topic discusses steps 1 thru 5 above and supports the following tutorials:

Assembly constraints

When creating assemblies keep the following constraints in mind.

Use .NET Framework 4.6.2

Plug-ins and custom workflow assemblies should use .NET Framework 4.6.2. While assemblies built using later versions should generally work, if they use any features introduced after 4.6.2 an error will occur.

Optimize assembly development

The assembly should include multiple plug-in classes (or types), but can be no larger than 16 MB. It is recommended to consolidate plug-ins and workflow assemblies into a single assembly as long as the size remains below 16 MB. More information: Optimize assembly development

Assemblies must be signed

All assemblies must be signed before they can be registered. This can be done using Visual Studio Signing tab on the project or by using Sn.exe (Strong Name Tool).

Do not depend on .NET assemblies that interact with low-level Windows APIs

Plug-in assemblies must contain all the necessary logic within the respective DLL. Plug-ins may reference some core .Net assemblies. However, we do not support dependencies on .NET assemblies that interact with low-level Windows APIs, such as the graphics design interface.

Do not depend on any other assemblies

Adding the Microsoft.CrmSdk.CoreAssemblies NuGet package will include these assemblies in the build folder for your assembly, but you will not upload these assemblies with the assembly that includes your logic. These assemblies are already present in the sandbox runtime.

Do not include any other NuGet packages or assemblies to the build folder of your project. You cannot include these assemblies when you register the assembly with your logic. You cannot assume that the assemblies other than those included in the Microsoft.CrmSdk.CoreAssemblies NuGet package will be present and compatible with your code.

IPlugin interface

A plug-in is a class within an assembly created using a .NET Framework Class library project using .NET Framework 4.6.2 in Visual Studio. Each class in the project that will be registered on a step must implement the IPlugin interface which requires the Execute method.


When implementing IPlugin, the class should be stateless. This is because the platform caches a class instance and re-uses it for performance reasons. A simple way of thinking about this is that you shouldn't add any properties or methods to the class and everything should be included within the Execute method. There are some exceptions to this. For example you can have a property that represents a constant and you can have methods that represent functions that are called from the Execute method. The important thing is that you never store any service instance or context data as a property in your class. These change with every invocation and you don't want that data to be cached and applied to subsequent invocations. More information: Develop IPlugin implementations as stateless

The Execute method accepts a single IServiceProvider parameter. The IServiceProvider has a single method: GetService. You will use this method to get several different types of services that you can use in your code. More information: Services you can use in your code

Pass configuration data to your plug-in

When you register a plug-in you have the ability to pass configuration data to it. Configuration data allows you to define how a specific instance of a registered plug-in should behave. This information is passed as string data to parameters in the constructor of your class. There are two parameters: unsecure and secure. Use the first unsecure parameter for data that you don't mind if people can see. Use the second secure parameter for sensitive data.

The following code shows the three possible signatures for a plug-in class named SamplePlugin.

public SamplePlugin()  
public SamplePlugin(string unsecure)  
public SamplePlugin(string unsecure, string secure)

The secure configuration data is stored in a separate table which only system administrators have privileges to read. More information: Register plug-in step > Set configuration data

Services you can use in your code

Within your plug-in you will need to:

  • Access the contextual information about what is happening in the event your plug-in was registered to handle. This is called the execution context.
  • Access the Organization web service so you can write code to query data, work with table records, use messages to perform operations.
  • Write messages to the Tracing service so you can evaluate how your code is executing.

The IServiceProvider.GetService method provides you with a way to access these services as needed. To get an instance of the service you invoke the GetService method passing the type of service.


When you write a plug-in that uses Azure Service Bus integration, you will use a notification service that implements the IServiceEndpointNotificationService interface, but this will not be described here. More information: Azure Integration

Organization Service

To work with data within a plug-in you use the Organization service. Do not try to use the Web API. Plug-ins can only be written using the SDK API and compiled as .NET assemblies.

To gain access to a svc variable that implements the IOrganizationService interface, use the following code:

// Obtain the organization service reference which you will need for  
// web service calls.  
IOrganizationServiceFactory serviceFactory =
IOrganizationService svc = serviceFactory.CreateOrganizationService(context.UserId);

The context.UserId variable used with IOrganizationServiceFactory.CreateOrganizationService(Nullable<Guid>) comes from execution context the UserId property, so this is call is done after the execution context has been accessed.

More information:

You can use early bound types within a plug-in. Just include the generated types file in your project. But you should be aware that all table types that are provided by the execution context input parameters will be late-bound types. You will need to convert them to early bound types. For example you can do the following when you know the Target parameter represents an account table.

Account acct = context.InputParameters["Target"].ToEntity<Account>();

But you should never try to set the value using an early-bound type. Don't try to do this:

context.InputParameters["Target"] = new Account() { Name = "MyAccount" }; // WRONG: Do not do this. 

This will cause an SerializationException to occur.

Use the tracing service

Use the tracing service to write messages to the PluginTraceLog Table so that you can review the logs to understand what occurred when the plug-in ran.

To write to the tracelog, you need to get an instance of the Tracing service. The following code shows how to get an instance of the Tracing service using the IServiceProvider.GetService method.

// Obtain the tracing service
ITracingService tracingService =

To write to the trace, use the ITracingService.Trace method.

tracingService.Trace("Write {0} {1}.", "your", "message");

More information: Use Tracing, Logging and tracing.

Performance considerations

When you add the business logic for your plug-in you need to be very aware of the impact they will have on overall performance.


The business logic in plug-ins registered for synchronous steps should take no more than 2 seconds to complete.

Time and resource constraints

There is a 2-minute time limit for message operations to complete. There are also limitations on the amount of CPU and memory resources that can be used by extensions. If the limits are exceeded an exception is thrown and the operation will be cancelled.

If the time limit is exceeded, an TimeoutException will be thrown. If any custom extension exceeds threshold CPU, memory, or handle limits or is otherwise unresponsive, that process will be killed by the platform. At that point any current extension in that process will fail with exceptions. However, the next time that the extension is executed it will run normally.

Monitor Performance

Run-time information about plug-ins and custom workflow extensions is captured and stored in the PluginTypeStatistic Table. These records are populated within 30 minutes to one hour after the custom code executes. This table provides the following data points:

Column Description
AverageExecuteTimeInMilliseconds The average execution time (in milliseconds) for the plug-in type. 
CrashContributionPercent The plug-in type percentage contribution to crashes. 
CrashCount Number of times the plug-in type has crashed. 
CrashPercent Percentage of crashes for the plug-in type. 
ExecuteCount Number of times the plug-in type has been executed. 
FailureCount  Number of times the plug-in type has failed. 
FailurePercent Percentage of failures for the plug-in type. 
PluginTypeIdName Unique identifier of the user who last modified the plug-in type statistic. 
TerminateCpuContributionPercent  The plug-in type percentage contribution to Worker process termination due to excessive CPU usage. 
TerminateHandlesContributionPercent  The plug-in type percentage contribution to Worker process termination due to excessive handle usage. 
TerminateMemoryContributionPercent The plug-in type percentage contribution to Worker process termination due to excessive memory usage. 
TerminateOtherContributionPercent The plug-in type percentage contribution to Worker process termination due to unknown reasons. 

This data is also available for you to browse using the Power Platform Admin Center. Select Analytics > Dataverse > Plug-ins.

Next steps

Register a plug-in
Debug Plug-ins

See also

Write plug-ins to extend business processes
Best practices and guidance regarding plug-in and workflow development
Handle exceptions
Impersonate a user
Tutorial: Write and register a plug-in
Tutorial: Debug a plug-in
Tutorial: Update a plug-in