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使用资源管理器模板创建经典指标预警规则

警告

本文介绍了如何创建旧式经典指标预警规则。 Azure Monitor 现在支持较新的近实时指标警报和新的警报体验。 经典警报已对公有云用户停用。 针对 Azure 政府云和 Azure 中国世纪互联的经典警报将于 2024 年 2 月 29 日停用。

本文说明如何使用 Azure 资源管理器模板配置 Azure 经典指标预警规则。 这样,便可以在创建资源时自动对资源设置预警规则,确保正确监视所有资源。

基本步骤如下所示:

  1. 以 JSON 文件的形式创建一个描述如何创建预警规则的模板。
  2. 使用任意部署方法部署模板

下面我们先单独针对预警规则,然后针对创建其他资源期间的预警规则,说明如何创建资源管理器模板。

经典指标预警规则的资源管理器模板

若要使用 Resource Manager 模板创建预警规则,需要创建 Microsoft.Insights/alertRules 类型的资源,并填充所有相关属性。 下面是用于创建警报规则的模板。

{
    "$schema": "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2015-01-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
    "contentVersion": "1.0.0.0",
    "parameters": {
        "alertName": {
            "type": "string",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Name of alert"
            }
        },
        "alertDescription": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Description of alert"
            }
        },
        "isEnabled": {
            "type": "bool",
            "defaultValue": true,
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Specifies whether alerts are enabled"
            }
        },
        "resourceId": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Resource ID of the resource emitting the metric that will be used for the comparison."
            }
        },
        "metricName": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Name of the metric used in the comparison to activate the alert."
            }
        },
        "operator": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "GreaterThan",
            "allowedValues": [
                "GreaterThan",
                "GreaterThanOrEqual",
                "LessThan",
                "LessThanOrEqual"
            ],
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Operator comparing the current value with the threshold value."
            }
        },
        "threshold": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "The threshold value at which the alert is activated."
            }
        },
        "aggregation": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "Average",
            "allowedValues": [
                "Average",
                "Last",
                "Maximum",
                "Minimum",
                "Total"
            ],
            "metadata": {
                "description": "How the data that is collected should be combined over time."
            }
        },
        "windowSize": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "PT5M",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Period of time used to monitor alert activity based on the threshold. Must be between five minutes and one day. ISO 8601 duration format."
            }
        },
        "sendToServiceOwners": {
            "type": "bool",
            "defaultValue": true,
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Specifies whether alerts are sent to service owners"
            }
        },
        "customEmailAddresses": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Comma-delimited email addresses where the alerts are also sent"
            }
        },
        "webhookUrl": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "URL of a webhook that will receive an HTTP POST when the alert activates."
            }
        }
    },
    "variables": {
        "customEmails": "[split(parameters('customEmailAddresses'), ',')]"
    },
    "resources": [
        {
            "type": "Microsoft.Insights/alertRules",
            "name": "[parameters('alertName')]",
            "location": "[resourceGroup().location]",
            "apiVersion": "2016-03-01",
            "properties": {
                "name": "[parameters('alertName')]",
                "description": "[parameters('alertDescription')]",
                "isEnabled": "[parameters('isEnabled')]",
                "condition": {
                    "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.ThresholdRuleCondition",
                    "dataSource": {
                        "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.RuleMetricDataSource",
                        "resourceUri": "[parameters('resourceId')]",
                        "metricName": "[parameters('metricName')]"
                    },
                    "operator": "[parameters('operator')]",
                    "threshold": "[parameters('threshold')]",
                    "windowSize": "[parameters('windowSize')]",
                    "timeAggregation": "[parameters('aggregation')]"
                },
                "actions": [
                    {
                        "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.RuleEmailAction",
                        "sendToServiceOwners": "[parameters('sendToServiceOwners')]",
                        "customEmails": "[variables('customEmails')]"
                    },
                    {
                        "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.RuleWebhookAction",
                        "serviceUri": "[parameters('webhookUrl')]",
                        "properties": {}
                    }
                ]
            }
        }
    ]
}

此处提供了警报规则的架构和属性说明。

具有经典指标预警规则的资源的资源管理器模板

在创建的资源过程中创建预警规则时,资源管理器模板上的预警规则通常很有用。 例如,可能想要确保每次部署虚拟机时均设置了“CPU % > 80”规则。 为此,请在 VM 模板的资源数组中将警报规则添加为资源,使用 dependsOn 属性将依赖项添加到 VM 资源 ID。 下面是创建 Windows VM 并在 CPU 利用率高于 80% 时添加预警规则以通知订阅管理员的完整示例。

{
    "$schema": "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2014-04-01-preview/deploymentTemplate.json#",
    "contentVersion": "1.0.0.0",
    "parameters": {
        "newStorageAccountName": {
            "type": "string",
            "metadata": {
                "Description": "The name of the storage account where the VM disk is stored."
            }
        },
        "adminUsername": {
            "type": "string",
            "metadata": {
                "Description": "The name of the administrator account on the VM."
            }
        },
        "adminPassword": {
            "type": "securestring",
            "metadata": {
                "Description": "The administrator account password on the VM."
            }
        },
        "dnsNameForPublicIP": {
            "type": "string",
            "metadata": {
                "Description": "The name of the public IP address used to access the VM."
            }
        }
    },
    "variables": {
        "location": "Central US",
        "imagePublisher": "MicrosoftWindowsServer",
        "imageOffer": "WindowsServer",
        "windowsOSVersion": "2012-R2-Datacenter",
        "OSDiskName": "osdisk1",
        "nicName": "nc1",
        "addressPrefix": "10.0.0.0/16",
        "subnetName": "sn1",
        "subnetPrefix": "10.0.0.0/24",
        "storageAccountType": "Standard_LRS",
        "publicIPAddressName": "ip1",
        "publicIPAddressType": "Dynamic",
        "vmStorageAccountContainerName": "vhds",
        "vmName": "vm1",
        "vmSize": "Standard_A0",
        "virtualNetworkName": "vn1",
        "vnetID": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks',variables('virtualNetworkName'))]",
        "subnetRef": "[concat(variables('vnetID'),'/subnets/',variables('subnetName'))]",
        "vmID":"[resourceId('Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines',variables('vmName'))]",
        "alertName": "highCPUOnVM",
        "alertDescription":"CPU is over 80%",
        "alertIsEnabled": true,
        "resourceId": "",
        "metricName": "Percentage CPU",
        "operator": "GreaterThan",
        "threshold": "80",
        "windowSize": "PT5M",
        "aggregation": "Average",
        "customEmails": "",
        "sendToServiceOwners": true,
        "webhookUrl": "http://testwebhook.test"
    },
    "resources": [
        {
            "type": "Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts",
            "name": "[parameters('newStorageAccountName')]",
            "apiVersion": "2015-06-15",
            "location": "[variables('location')]",
            "properties": {
                "accountType": "[variables('storageAccountType')]"
            }
        },
        {
            "apiVersion": "2016-03-30",
            "type": "Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses",
            "name": "[variables('publicIPAddressName')]",
            "location": "[variables('location')]",
            "properties": {
                "publicIPAllocationMethod": "[variables('publicIPAddressType')]",
                "dnsSettings": {
                    "domainNameLabel": "[parameters('dnsNameForPublicIP')]"
                }
            }
        },
        {
            "apiVersion": "2016-03-30",
            "type": "Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks",
            "name": "[variables('virtualNetworkName')]",
            "location": "[variables('location')]",
            "properties": {
                "addressSpace": {
                    "addressPrefixes": [
                        "[variables('addressPrefix')]"
                    ]
                },
                "subnets": [
                    {
                        "name": "[variables('subnetName')]",
                        "properties": {
                            "addressPrefix": "[variables('subnetPrefix')]"
                        }
                    }
                ]
            }
        },
        {
            "apiVersion": "2016-03-30",
            "type": "Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces",
            "name": "[variables('nicName')]",
            "location": "[variables('location')]",
            "dependsOn": [
                "[concat('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses/', variables('publicIPAddressName'))]",
                "[concat('Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks/', variables('virtualNetworkName'))]"
            ],
            "properties": {
                "ipConfigurations": [
                    {
                        "name": "ipconfig1",
                        "properties": {
                            "privateIPAllocationMethod": "Dynamic",
                            "publicIPAddress": {
                                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses',variables('publicIPAddressName'))]"
                            },
                            "subnet": {
                                "id": "[variables('subnetRef')]"
                            }
                        }
                    }
                ]
            }
        },
        {
            "apiVersion": "2016-03-30",
            "type": "Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines",
            "name": "[variables('vmName')]",
            "location": "[variables('location')]",
            "dependsOn": [
                "[concat('Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts/', parameters('newStorageAccountName'))]",
                "[concat('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces/', variables('nicName'))]"
            ],
            "properties": {
                "hardwareProfile": {
                    "vmSize": "[variables('vmSize')]"
                },
                "osProfile": {
                    "computername": "[variables('vmName')]",
                    "adminUsername": "[parameters('adminUsername')]",
                    "adminPassword": "[parameters('adminPassword')]"
                },
                "storageProfile": {
                    "imageReference": {
                        "publisher": "[variables('imagePublisher')]",
                        "offer": "[variables('imageOffer')]",
                        "sku": "[variables('windowsOSVersion')]",
                        "version": "latest"
                    },
                    "osDisk": {
                        "name": "osdisk",
                        "vhd": {
                            "uri": "[concat('http://',parameters('newStorageAccountName'),'.blob.core.windows.net/',variables('vmStorageAccountContainerName'),'/',variables('OSDiskName'),'.vhd')]"
                        },
                        "caching": "ReadWrite",
                        "createOption": "FromImage"
                    }
                },
                "networkProfile": {
                    "networkInterfaces": [
                        {
                            "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces',variables('nicName'))]"
                        }
                    ]
                }
            }
        },
        {
            "type": "Microsoft.Insights/alertRules",
            "name": "[variables('alertName')]",
            "dependsOn": [
                "[variables('vmID')]"
            ],
            "location": "[variables('location')]",
            "apiVersion": "2016-03-01",
            "properties": {
                "name": "[variables('alertName')]",
                "description": "variables('alertDescription')",
                "isEnabled": "[variables('alertIsEnabled')]",
                "condition": {
                    "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.ThresholdRuleCondition",
                    "dataSource": {
                        "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.RuleMetricDataSource",
                        "resourceUri": "[variables('vmID')]",
                        "metricName": "[variables('metricName')]"
                    },
                    "operator": "[variables('operator')]",
                    "threshold": "[variables('threshold')]",
                    "windowSize": "[variables('windowSize')]",
                    "timeAggregation": "[variables('aggregation')]"
                },
                "actions": [
                    {
                        "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.RuleEmailAction",
                        "sendToServiceOwners": "[variables('sendToServiceOwners')]",
                        "customEmails": "[variables('customEmails')]"
                    },
                    {
                        "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.RuleWebhookAction",
                        "serviceUri": "[variables('webhookUrl')]",
                        "properties": {}
                    }
                ]
            }
        }
    ]
}

后续步骤