Microsoft 宏汇编程序 BNF 语法

此页面包含 MASM 语法的 BNF 说明。 它作为参考的补充提供,不保证是完整的。 有关关键字、参数、操作等的完整信息,请参阅参考。

为了说明 BNF 的使用,下图显示了 TYPEDEF 指令的定义,从非终止符 typedefDir 开始。

显示生成 typedefDir 的终止符和非终止符的层次结构的图表。

每个水平大括号下的条目都是终止符,例如 NEAR16NEAR32FAR16FAR32。 否则,它们是可以进一步定义的非终止符,例如 qualifierqualifiedTypedistanceprotoSpectypedefDir 定义中的每个斜体非终止符也是 BNF 中的条目。 三个垂直的点表示非终止符的分支定义,为了简单起见,此图不进行说明。

BNF 语法允许递归定义。 例如,语法使用 qualifiedType 作为 qualifiedType 的可能定义,这也是 qualifier 的定义的组成部分。 例如,“|”符号在备用表达式之间指定一个选择,例如 endOfLine | comment。 双大括号指定可选参数,例如 ⟦ macroParmList ⟧。 大括号实际上不会出现在源代码中。

MASM 非终止符

;;
endOfLine | comment

=Dir
id = immExpr ;;

addOp
+ | -

aExpr
term | aExpr && term

altId
id

alpha
  任何大写或小写字母 (A-Z) 或以下四个字符之一:@ _ $ ?

arbitraryText
charList

asmInstruction
mnemonicexprList

assumeDir
ASSUME assumeList ;;
  | ASSUME NOTHING ;;

assumeList
assumeRegister | assumeList , assumeRegister

assumeReg
register : assumeVal

assumeRegister
assumeSegReg | assumeReg

assumeSegReg
segmentRegister : assumeSegVal

assumeSegVal
frameExpr | NOTHING | ERROR

assumeVal
qualifiedType | NOTHING | ERROR

bcdConst
  ⟦ signdecNumber

binaryOp
== | != | >= | <= | > | < | &

bitDef
bitFieldId:bitFieldSize=constExpr

bitDefList
bitDef | bitDefList,;;bitDef

bitFieldId
id

bitFieldSize
constExpr

blockStatements
directiveList
  | .CONTINUE.IFcExpr
  | .BREAK.IFcExpr

bool
TRUE | FALSE

byteRegister
AL | AH | CL | CH | DL | DH | BL | BH | R8B | R9B | R10B | R11B | R12B | R13B | R14B | R15B

cExpr
aExpr | cExpr || aExpr

character
  范围 0-255 中带序号的任意字符,换行符 (10) 除外。

charList
character | charList character

className
string

commDecl
  ⟦ nearfar ⟧ ⟦ langTypeid:commType
  ⟦ :constExpr

commDir
COMM
commList ;;

comment
; text ;;

commentDir
COMMENT delimiter
text
text delimiter text ;;

commList
commDecl | commList , commDecl

commType
type | constExpr

constant
digitsradixOverride

constExpr
expr

contextDir
PUSHCONTEXT contextItemList ;;
  | POPCONTEXT contextItemList ;;

contextItem
ASSUMES | RADIX | LISTING | CPU | ALL

contextItemList
contextItem | contextItemList , contextItem

controlBlock
whileBlock | repeatBlock

controlDir
controlIf | controlBlock

controlElseif
.ELSEIF cExpr ;;
directiveList
  ⟦ controlElseif

controlIf
.IF cExpr ;;
directiveList
  ⟦ controlElseif
  ⟦ .ELSE;;
directiveList
.ENDIF ;;

coprocessor
.8087 | .287 | .387 | .NO87

crefDir
crefOption ;;

crefOption
.CREF
  | .XCREFidList
  | .NOCREFidList

cxzExpr
expr
  | ! expr
  | expr == expr
  | expr != expr

dataDecl
DB | DW | DD | DF | DQ | DT | dataType | typeId

dataDir
  ⟦ iddataItem;;

dataItem
dataDecl scalarInstList
  | structTag structInstList
  | typeId structInstList
  | unionTag structInstList
  | recordTag recordInstList

dataType
BYTE | SBYTE | WORD | SWORD | DWORD | SDWORD | FWORD | QWORD | SQWORD | TBYTE | OWORD | REAL4 | REAL8 | REAL10 | MMWORD | XMMWORD | YMMWORD

decdigit
0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

decNumber
decdigit
  | decNumber decdigit

delimiter
whiteSpaceCharacter 以外的任意字符

digits
decdigit
  | digits decdigit
  | digits hexdigit

directive
generalDir | segmentDef

directiveList
directive | directiveList directive

distance
nearfar | NEAR16 | NEAR32 | FAR16 | FAR32

e01
e01 orOp e02 | e02

e02
e02 AND e03 | e03

e03
NOT e04 | e04

e04
e04 relOp e05 | e05

e05
e05 addOp e06 | e06

e06
e06 mulOp e07 | e06 shiftOp e07 | e07

e07
e07 addOp e08 | e08

e08
HIGH e09
  | LOW e09
  | HIGHWORD e09
  | LOWWORD e09
  | e09

e09
OFFSET e10
  | SEG e10
  | LROFFSET e10
  | TYPE e10
  | THIS e10
  | e09 PTR e10
  | e09 : e10
  | e10

e10
e10 . e11
  | e10expr
  | e11

e11
( expr )
  | ⟦ expr
  | WIDTH id
  | MASK id
  | SIZE sizeArg
  | SIZEOF sizeArg
  | LENGTH id
  | LENGTHOF id
  | recordConst
  | string
  | constant
  | type
  | id
  | $
  | segmentRegister
  | register
  | ST
  | ST ( expr )

echoDir
ECHO arbitraryText ;;
%OUT arbitraryText ;;

elseifBlock
elseifStatement ;;
directiveList
  ⟦ elseifBlock

elseifStatement
ELSEIF constExpr
  | ELSEIFE constExpr
  | ELSEIFB textItem
  | ELSEIFNB textItem
  | ELSEIFDEF id
  | ELSEIFNDEF id
  | ELSEIFDIF textItem , textItem
  | ELSEIFDIFI textItem , textItem
  | ELSEIFIDN textItem , textItem
  | ELSEIFIDNI textItem , textItem
  | ELSEIF1
  | ELSEIF2

endDir
ENDimmExpr;;

endpDir
procId ENDP ;;

endsDir
id ENDS ;;

equDir
textMacroId EQU equType ;;

equType
immExpr | textLiteral

errorDir
errorOpt ;;

errorOpt
.ERRtextItem
  | .ERREconstExproptText
  | .ERRNZconstExproptText
  | .ERRBtextItemoptText
  | .ERRNBtextItemoptText
  | .ERRDEFidoptText
  | .ERRNDEFidoptText
  | .ERRDIFtextItem,textItemoptText
  | .ERRDIFItextItem,textItemoptText
  | .ERRIDNtextItem,textItemoptText
  | .ERRIDNItextItem,textItemoptText
  | .ERR1textItem
  | .ERR2textItem

exitDir
.EXITexpr;;

exitmDir
: EXITM | EXITM textItem

exponent
EsigndecNumber

expr
SHORT e05
  | .TYPE e01
  | OPATTR e01
  | e01

exprList
expr | exprList , expr

externDef
  ⟦ langTypeid(altId):externType

externDir
externKey externList ;;

externKey
EXTRN | EXTERN | EXTERNDEF

externList
externDef | externList,;;externDef

externType
ABS | qualifiedType

fieldAlign
constExpr

fieldInit
  ⟦ initValue ⟧ | structInstance

fieldInitList
fieldInit | fieldInitList,;;fieldInit

fileChar
delimiter

fileCharList
fileChar | fileCharList fileChar

fileSpec
fileCharList | textLiteral

flagName
ZERO? | CARRY? | OVERFLOW? | SIGN? | PARITY?

floatNumber
  ⟦ signdecNumber.decNumber ⟧ ⟦ exponent
  | digits R
  | digits r

forcDir
FORC | IRPC

forDir
FOR | IRP

forParm
id:forParmType

forParmType
REQ | = textLiteral

fpuRegister
ST expr

frameExpr
SEG id
  | DGROUP : id
  | segmentRegister : id
  | id

generalDir
modelDir | segOrderDir | nameDir
  | includeLibDir | commentDir
  | groupDir | assumeDir
  | structDir | recordDir | typedefDir
  | externDir | publicDir | commDir | protoTypeDir
  | equDir | =Dir | textDir
  | contextDir | optionDir | processorDir
  | radixDir
  | titleDir | pageDir | listDir
  | crefDir | echoDir
  | ifDir | errorDir | includeDir
  | macroDir | macroCall | macroRepeat | purgeDir
  | macroWhile | macroFor | macroForc
  | aliasDir

gpRegister
AX | EAX | CX | ECX | DX | EDX | BX | EBX
  | DI | EDI | SI | ESI | BP | EBP | SP | ESP
  | R8W | R8D | R9W | R9D | R12D | R13W | R13D | R14W | R14D

groupDir
groupId GROUP segIdList

groupId
id

hexdigit
a | b | c | d | e | f
  | A | B | C | D | E | F

id
alpha
  | id alpha
  | id decdigit
  最大长度为 247 个字符。

idList
id | idList , id

ifDir
ifStatement ;;
directiveList
  ⟦ elseifBlock
  ⟦ ELSE;;
directiveList;;

ifStatement
IF constExpr
  | IFE constExpr
  | IFB textItem
  | IFNB textItem
  | IFDEF id
  | IFNDEF id
  | IFDIF textItem , textItem
  | IFDIFI textItem , textItem
  | IFIDN textItem , textItem
  | IFIDNI textItem , textItem
  | IF1
  | IF2

immExpr
expr

includeDir
INCLUDE fileSpec ;;

includeLibDir
INCLUDELIB fileSpec ;;

initValue
immExpr
  | string
  | ?
  | constExprDUP ( scalarInstList )
  | floatNumber
  | bcdConst

inSegDir
  ⟦ labelDefinSegmentDir

inSegDirList
inSegDir | inSegDirList inSegDir

inSegmentDir
instruction
  | dataDir
  | controlDir
  | startupDir
  | exitDir
  | offsetDir
  | labelDir
  | procDirlocalDirList ⟧ ⟦ inSegDirListendpDir
  | invokeDir
  | generalDir

instrPrefix
REP | REPE | REPZ | REPNE | REPNZ | LOCK

instruction
  ⟦ instrPrefixasmInstruction

invokeArg
register :: register
  | expr
  | ADDR expr

invokeDir
INVOKEexpr,;;invokeList;;

invokeList
invokeArg | invokeList,;;invokeArg

keyword
  任意保留字。

keywordList
keyword | keyword keywordList

labelDef
id : | id :: | @@:

labelDir
id LABEL qualifiedType ;;

langType
C | PASCAL | FORTRAN | BASIC | SYSCALL | STDCALL

listDir
listOption ;;

listOption
.LIST
  | .NOLIST
  | .XLIST
  | .LISTALL
  | .LISTIF
  | .LFCOND
  | .NOLISTIF
  | .SFCOND
  | .TFCOND
  | .LISTMACROALL | .LALL
  | .NOLISTMACRO | .SALL
  | .LISTMACRO | .XALL

localDef
LOCAL idList ;;

localDir
LOCAL parmList ;;

localDirList
localDir | localDirList localDir

localList
localDef | localList localDef

macroArg
% constExpr
  | % textMacroId
  | % macroFuncId ( macroArgList )
  | string
  | arbitraryText
  | < arbitraryText >

macroArgList
macroArg | macroArgList , macroArg

macroBody
  ⟦ localListmacroStmtList

macroCall
id macroArgList ;;
  | id ( macroArgList )

macroDir
idMACROmacroParmList;;
macroBody
ENDM ;;

macroFor
forDir forParm , < macroArgList > ;;
macroBody
ENDM ;;

macroForc
forcDir id , textLiteral ;;
macroBody
ENDM ;;

macroFuncId
id

macroId
macroProcId | macroFuncId

macroIdList
macroId | macroIdList , macroId

macroLabel
id

macroParm
id:parmType

macroParmList
macroParm | macroParmList,;;macroParm

macroProcId
id

macroRepeat
repeatDir constExpr ;;
macroBody
ENDM ;;

macroStmt
directive
  | exitmDir
  | : macroLabel
  | GOTO macroLabel

macroStmtList
macroStmt ;;
  | macroStmtList macroStmt ;;

macroWhile
WHILE constExpr ;;
macroBody
ENDM ;;

mapType
ALL | NONE | NOTPUBLIC

memOption
TINY | SMALL | MEDIUM | COMPACT | LARGE | HUGE | FLAT

mnemonic
  指令名称。

modelDir
.MODELmemOption,modelOptlist;;

modelOpt
langType | stackOption

modelOptlist
modelOpt | modelOptlist , modelOpt

module
  ⟦ directiveListendDir

mulOp
* | / | MOD

nameDir
NAME id ;;

nearfar
NEAR | FAR

nestedStruct
structHdrid;;
structBody
ENDS ;;

offsetDir
offsetDirType ;;

offsetDirType
EVEN
  | ORG immExpr
  | ALIGNconstExpr

offsetType
GROUP | SEGMENT | FLAT

oldRecordFieldList
  ⟦ constExpr ⟧ | oldRecordFieldList,constExpr

optionDir
OPTION optionList ;;

optionItem
CASEMAP : mapType
  | DOTNAME | NODOTNAME
  | EMULATOR | NOEMULATOR
  | EPILOGUE : macroId
  | EXPR16 | EXPR32
  | LANGUAGE : langType
  | LJMP | NOLJMP
  | M510 | NOM510
  | NOKEYWORD : < keywordList >
  | NOSIGNEXTEND
  | OFFSET : offsetType
  | OLDMACROS | NOOLDMACROS
  | OLDSTRUCTS | NOOLDSTRUCTS
  | PROC : oVisibility
  | PROLOGUE : macroId
  | READONLY | NOREADONLY
  | SCOPED | NOSCOPED
  | SEGMENT : segSize
  | SETIF2 : bool

optionList
optionItem | optionList,;;optionItem

optText
, textItem

orOp
OR | XOR

oVisibility
PUBLIC | PRIVATE | EXPORT

pageDir
PAGEpageExpr;;

pageExpr
+ | ⟦ pageLength ⟧ ⟦ ,pageWidth

pageLength
constExpr

pageWidth
constExpr

parm
parmId:qualifiedType
  | parmIdconstExpr ⟧ ⟦ :qualifiedType

parmId
id

parmList
parm | parmList,;;parm

parmType
REQ | = textLiteral | VARARG

pOptions
  ⟦ distance ⟧ ⟦ langType ⟧ ⟦ oVisibility

primary
expr binaryOp expr | flagName | expr

procDir
procIdPROCpOptions ⟧ ⟦ <macroArgList>
  ⟦ usesRegs ⟧ ⟦ procParmList

processor
  | .386 | .386p | .486 | .486P
  | .586 | .586P | .686 | .686P | .387

processorDir
processor ;;
  | coprocessor ;;

procId
id

procItem
instrPrefix | dataDir | labelDir | offsetDir | generalDir

procParmList
  ⟦ ,;;parmList
  ⟦ ,;;parmId:VARARG

protoArg
  ⟦ id:qualifiedType

protoArgList
  ⟦ ,;;protoList
  ⟦ ,;; ⟧ ⟦ id:VARARG

protoList
protoArg
  | protoList,;;protoArg

protoSpec
  ⟦ distance ⟧ ⟦ langType ⟧ ⟦ protoArgList
  | typeId

protoTypeDir
id PROTO protoSpec

pubDef
  ⟦ langTypeid

publicDir
PUBLIC pubList ;;

pubList
pubDef | pubList,;;pubDef

purgeDir
PURGE macroIdList

qualifiedType
type
  | ⟦ distancePTRqualifiedType

qualifier
qualifiedType | PROTO protoSpec

quote
" | '

qwordRegister
RAX | RCX | RDX | RBX | RSP | RBP | RSI | RDI
  | R8 | R9 | R10 | R11 | R12 | R13 | R14 | R15

radixDir
.RADIX constExpr ;;

radixOverride
h | o | q | t | y
  | H | O | Q | T | Y

recordConst
recordTag { oldRecordFieldList }
  | recordTag < oldRecordFieldList >

recordDir
recordTag RECORD bitDefList ;;

recordFieldList
  ⟦ constExpr ⟧ | recordFieldList,;; ⟧ ⟦ constExpr

recordInstance
{;;recordFieldList;;}
  | < oldRecordFieldList >
  | constExpr DUP ( recordInstance )

recordInstList
recordInstance | recordInstList,;;recordInstance

recordTag
id

register
specialRegister | gpRegister | byteRegister | qwordRegister | fpuRegister | SIMDRegister | segmentRegister

regList
register | regList register

relOp
EQ | NE | LT | LE | GT | GE

repeatBlock
.REPEAT ;;
blockStatements ;; untilDir ;;

repeatDir
REPEAT | REPT

scalarInstList
initValue
  | scalarInstList,;;initValue

segAlign
BYTE | WORD | DWORD | PARA | PAGE

segAttrib
PUBLIC | STACK | COMMON | MEMORY | AT constExpr | PRIVATE

segDir
.CODEsegId
  | .DATA
  | .DATA?
  | .CONST
  | .FARDATAsegId
  | .FARDATA?segId
  | .STACKconstExpr

segId
id

segIdList
segId
  | segIdList , segId

segmentDef
segmentDirinSegDirListendsDir | simpleSegDirinSegDirList ⟧ ⟦ endsDir

segmentDir
segIdSEGMENTsegOptionList;;

segmentRegister
CS | DS | ES | FS | GS | SS

segOption
segAlign
  | segRO
  | segAttrib
  | segSize
  | className

segOptionList
segOption | segOptionList segOption

segOrderDir
.ALPHA | .SEQ | .DOSSEG | DOSSEG

segRO
READONLY

segSize
USE16 | USE32 | FLAT

shiftOp
SHR | SHL

sign
+ | -

simdRegister
MM0 | MM1 | MM2 | MM3 | MM4 | MM5 | MM6 | MM7
  | xmmRegister
  | YMM0 | YMM1 | YMM2 | YMM3 | YMM4 | YMM5 | YMM6 | YMM7
  | YMM8 | YMM9 | YMM10 | YMM11 | YMM12 | YMM13 | YMM14 | YMM15

simpleExpr
( cExpr ) | primary

simpleSegDir
segDir ;;

sizeArg
id | type | e10

specialChars
: | . | [ | ] | ( | ) | < | > | { | }
  | + | - | / | * | & | % | !
  | ' | \ | = | ; | , | "
  | whiteSpaceCharacter
  | endOfLine

specialRegister
CR0 | CR2 | CR3
  | DR0 | DR1 | DR2 | DR3 | DR6 | DR7
  | TR3 | TR4 | TR5 | TR6 | TR7

stackOption
NEARSTACK | FARSTACK

startupDir
.STARTUP ;;

stext
stringChar | stext stringChar

string
quotestextquote

stringChar
quotequote | 引号以外的任意字符。

structBody
structItem ;;
  | structBody structItem ;;

structDir
structTagstructHdrfieldAlign
  ⟦ ,NONUNIQUE;;
structBody
structTag ENDS ;;

structHdr
STRUC | STRUCT | UNION

structInstance
<fieldInitList>
  | {;; ⟧ ⟦ fieldInitList ⟧ ⟦ ;;}
  | constExprDUP ( structInstList )

structInstList
structInstance | structInstList,;;structInstance

structItem
dataDir
  | generalDir
  | offsetDir
  | nestedStruct

structTag
id

term
simpleExpr | ! simpleExpr

text
textLiteral | text character | ! character text | character | ! character

textDir
id textMacroDir ;;

textItem
textLiteral | textMacroId | % constExpr

textLen
constExpr

textList
textItem | textList,;;textItem

textLiteral
< text > ;;

textMacroDir
CATSTRtextList
  | TEXTEQUtextList
  | SIZESTR textItem
  | SUBSTRtextItem,textStart,textLen
  | INSTRtextStart,textItem,textItem

textMacroId
id

textStart
constExpr

titleDir
titleType arbitraryText ;;

titleType
TITLE | SUBTITLE | SUBTTL

type
structTag
  | unionTag
  | recordTag
  | distance
  | dataType
  | typeId

typedefDir
typeId TYPEDEF qualifier

typeId
id

unionTag
id

untilDir
.UNTIL cExpr ;;
.UNTILCXZcxzExpr;;

usesRegs
USES regList

whileBlock
.WHILE cExpr ;;
blockStatements ;;
.ENDW

whiteSpaceCharacter
  ASCII 8、9、11-13、26、32

xmmRegister
XMM0 | XMM1 | XMM2 | XMM3 | XMM4 | XMM5 | XMM6 | XMM7
  | XMM8 | XMM9 | XMM10 | XMM11 | XMM12 | XMM13 | XMM14 | XMM15