Enumerable.Union 方法

定义

生成两个序列的并集。

重载

Union<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TSource>)

通过使用默认的相等比较器,生成两个序列的并集。

Union<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TSource>, IEqualityComparer<TSource>)

通过使用指定的 IEqualityComparer<T> 生成两个序列的并集。

Union<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TSource>)

通过使用默认的相等比较器,生成两个序列的并集。

public:
generic <typename TSource>
[System::Runtime::CompilerServices::Extension]
 static System::Collections::Generic::IEnumerable<TSource> ^ Union(System::Collections::Generic::IEnumerable<TSource> ^ first, System::Collections::Generic::IEnumerable<TSource> ^ second);
public static System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource> Union<TSource> (this System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource> first, System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource> second);
static member Union : seq<'Source> * seq<'Source> -> seq<'Source>
<Extension()>
Public Function Union(Of TSource) (first As IEnumerable(Of TSource), second As IEnumerable(Of TSource)) As IEnumerable(Of TSource)

类型参数

TSource

输入序列中的元素的类型。

参数

first
IEnumerable<TSource>

一个 IEnumerable<T>,其中的非重复元素构成并集的第一个部分。

second
IEnumerable<TSource>

一个 IEnumerable<T>,其中的非重复元素构成并集的第二个部分。

返回

IEnumerable<TSource>

一个 包含两个输入序列中的非重复元素的 IEnumerable<T>

例外

firstsecondnull

示例

下面的代码示例演示如何用于 Union<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TSource>) 获取两个整数序列的并集。

int[] ints1 = { 5, 3, 9, 7, 5, 9, 3, 7 };
int[] ints2 = { 8, 3, 6, 4, 4, 9, 1, 0 };

IEnumerable<int> union = ints1.Union(ints2);

foreach (int num in union)
{
    Console.Write("{0} ", num);
}

/*
 This code produces the following output:

 5 3 9 7 8 6 4 1 0
*/
' Create two arrays of integer values.
Dim ints1() As Integer = {5, 3, 9, 7, 5, 9, 3, 7}
Dim ints2() As Integer = {8, 3, 6, 4, 4, 9, 1, 0}

' Get the set union of the two arrays.
Dim union As IEnumerable(Of Integer) = ints1.Union(ints2)

' Display the resulting set's values.
Dim output As New System.Text.StringBuilder
For Each num As Integer In union
    output.AppendLine(num & " ")
Next
Console.WriteLine(output.ToString())

' This code produces the following output:
'
' 5 
' 3 
' 9 
' 7 
' 8 
' 6 
' 4 
' 1 
' 0

如果要比较某些自定义数据类型的对象序列,则必须在帮助程序类中实现 IEquatable<T> 泛型接口。 下面的代码示例演示如何在自定义数据类型中实现此接口并重写 GetHashCodeEquals 方法。

public class ProductA : IEquatable<ProductA>
{
    public string Name { get; set; }
    public int Code { get; set; }

    public bool Equals(ProductA other)
    {
        if (other is null)
            return false;

        return this.Name == other.Name && this.Code == other.Code;
    }

    public override bool Equals(object obj) => Equals(obj as ProductA);
    public override int GetHashCode() => (Name, Code).GetHashCode();
}
Public Class ProductA
    Inherits IEquatable(Of ProductA)

    Public Property Name As String
    Public Property Code As Integer

    Public Function Equals(ByVal other As ProductA) As Boolean
        If other Is Nothing Then Return False
        Return Me.Name = other.Name AndAlso Me.Code = other.Code
    End Function

    Public Overrides Function Equals(ByVal obj As Object) As Boolean
        Return Equals(TryCast(obj, ProductA))
    End Function

    Public Overrides Function GetHashCode() As Integer
        Return (Name, Code).GetHashCode()
    End Function

End Class

实现此接口后,可以在方法中使用Union<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TSource>)对象序列ProductA,如以下示例所示:

ProductA[] store1 = { new ProductA { Name = "apple", Code = 9 },
                       new ProductA { Name = "orange", Code = 4 } };

ProductA[] store2 = { new ProductA { Name = "apple", Code = 9 },
                       new ProductA { Name = "lemon", Code = 12 } };
Dim store1() As ProductA = 
    {New Product With {.Name = "apple", .Code = 9}, 
     New Product With {.Name = "orange", .Code = 4}}

Dim store2() As ProductA = 
    {New Product With {.Name = "apple", .Code = 9}, 
     New Product With {.Name = "lemon", .Code = 12}}
//Get the products from the both arrays
//excluding duplicates.

IEnumerable<ProductA> union =
  store1.Union(store2);

foreach (var product in union)
    Console.WriteLine(product.Name + " " + product.Code);

/*
    This code produces the following output:

    apple 9
    orange 4
    lemon 12
*/
' Get the products from the both arrays
' excluding duplicates.

Dim union = store1.Union(store2)

For Each product In union
    Console.WriteLine(product.Name & " " & product.Code)
Next

' This code produces the following output:
'
' apple 9
' orange 4
' lemon 12
'

注解

此方法通过使用延迟执行来实现。 即时返回值是一个对象,用于存储执行操作所需的所有信息。 除非对象通过直接调用其方法或在 foreach Visual C# 或 For Each Visual Basic 中使用来枚举对象GetEnumerator,否则不会执行此方法表示的查询。

此方法从返回集中排除重复项。 这是与该方法不同的行为 Concat ,该方法返回输入序列中的所有元素,包括重复项。

默认相等比较器 Default用于比较实现 IEqualityComparer<T> 泛型接口的类型的值。 若要比较自定义数据类型,需要实现此接口并为该类型提供自己的 GetHashCodeEquals 方法。

枚举此方法返回的对象时, Union 按该顺序枚举 firstsecond 生成尚未生成的每个元素。

适用于

Union<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, IEnumerable<TSource>, IEqualityComparer<TSource>)

通过使用指定的 IEqualityComparer<T> 生成两个序列的并集。

public:
generic <typename TSource>
[System::Runtime::CompilerServices::Extension]
 static System::Collections::Generic::IEnumerable<TSource> ^ Union(System::Collections::Generic::IEnumerable<TSource> ^ first, System::Collections::Generic::IEnumerable<TSource> ^ second, System::Collections::Generic::IEqualityComparer<TSource> ^ comparer);
public static System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource> Union<TSource> (this System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource> first, System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource> second, System.Collections.Generic.IEqualityComparer<TSource> comparer);
public static System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource> Union<TSource> (this System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource> first, System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource> second, System.Collections.Generic.IEqualityComparer<TSource>? comparer);
static member Union : seq<'Source> * seq<'Source> * System.Collections.Generic.IEqualityComparer<'Source> -> seq<'Source>
<Extension()>
Public Function Union(Of TSource) (first As IEnumerable(Of TSource), second As IEnumerable(Of TSource), comparer As IEqualityComparer(Of TSource)) As IEnumerable(Of TSource)

类型参数

TSource

输入序列中的元素的类型。

参数

first
IEnumerable<TSource>

一个 IEnumerable<T>,其中的非重复元素构成并集的第一个部分。

second
IEnumerable<TSource>

一个 IEnumerable<T>,其中的非重复元素构成并集的第二个部分。

comparer
IEqualityComparer<TSource>

用于比较值的 IEqualityComparer<T>

返回

IEnumerable<TSource>

一个 包含两个输入序列中的非重复元素的 IEnumerable<T>

例外

firstsecondnull

示例

以下示例演示如何实现方法中使用的 Union 相等比较器。

public class Product
{
    public string Name { get; set; }
    public int Code { get; set; }
}

// Custom comparer for the Product class
class ProductComparer : IEqualityComparer<Product>
{
    // Products are equal if their names and product numbers are equal.
    public bool Equals(Product x, Product y)
    {

        //Check whether the compared objects reference the same data.
        if (Object.ReferenceEquals(x, y)) return true;

        //Check whether any of the compared objects is null.
        if (Object.ReferenceEquals(x, null) || Object.ReferenceEquals(y, null))
            return false;

        //Check whether the products' properties are equal.
        return x.Code == y.Code && x.Name == y.Name;
    }

    // If Equals() returns true for a pair of objects
    // then GetHashCode() must return the same value for these objects.

    public int GetHashCode(Product product)
    {
        //Check whether the object is null
        if (Object.ReferenceEquals(product, null)) return 0;

        //Get hash code for the Name field if it is not null.
        int hashProductName = product.Name == null ? 0 : product.Name.GetHashCode();

        //Get hash code for the Code field.
        int hashProductCode = product.Code.GetHashCode();

        //Calculate the hash code for the product.
        return hashProductName ^ hashProductCode;
    }
}
Public Class Product
    Public Property Name As String
    Public Property Code As Integer
End Class

' Custom comparer for the Product class
Public Class ProductComparer
    Implements IEqualityComparer(Of Product)

    Public Function Equals1(
        ByVal x As Product, 
        ByVal y As Product
        ) As Boolean Implements IEqualityComparer(Of Product).Equals

        ' Check whether the compared objects reference the same data.
        If x Is y Then Return True

        'Check whether any of the compared objects is null.
        If x Is Nothing OrElse y Is Nothing Then Return False

        ' Check whether the products' properties are equal.
        Return (x.Code = y.Code) AndAlso (x.Name = y.Name)
    End Function

    Public Function GetHashCode1(
        ByVal product As Product
        ) As Integer Implements IEqualityComparer(Of Product).GetHashCode

        ' Check whether the object is null.
        If product Is Nothing Then Return 0

        ' Get hash code for the Name field if it is not null.
        Dim hashProductName = 
            If(product.Name Is Nothing, 0, product.Name.GetHashCode())

        ' Get hash code for the Code field.
        Dim hashProductCode = product.Code.GetHashCode()

        ' Calculate the hash code for the product.
        Return hashProductName Xor hashProductCode
    End Function
End Class

实现此比较器后,可以在方法中使用Union对象的序列Product,如以下示例所示:

Product[] store10 = { new Product { Name = "apple", Code = 9 },
                       new Product { Name = "orange", Code = 4 } };

Product[] store20 = { new Product { Name = "apple", Code = 9 },
                       new Product { Name = "lemon", Code = 12 } };

//Get the products from the both arrays
//excluding duplicates.

IEnumerable<Product> union =
  store10.Union(store20, new ProductComparer());

foreach (Product product in union)
    Console.WriteLine(product.Name + " " + product.Code);

/*
    This code produces the following output:

    apple 9
    orange 4
    lemon 12
*/
Dim store1() As Product = 
    {New Product With {.Name = "apple", .Code = 9}, 
     New Product With {.Name = "orange", .Code = 4}}

Dim store2() As Product = 
    {New Product With {.Name = "apple", .Code = 9}, 
     New Product With {.Name = "lemon", .Code = 12}}
' Get the products from the both arrays
' excluding duplicates.

Dim union = store1.Union(store2, New ProductComparer())

For Each product In union
    Console.WriteLine(product.Name & " " & product.Code)
Next

' This code produces the following output:
'
' apple 9
' orange 4
' lemon 12
'

注解

此方法通过使用延迟执行来实现。 即时返回值是一个对象,用于存储执行操作所需的所有信息。 除非对象通过直接调用其方法或在 foreach Visual C# 或 For Each Visual Basic 中使用来枚举对象GetEnumerator,否则不会执行此方法表示的查询。

如果comparernullDefault,则使用默认相等比较器比较值。

枚举此方法返回的对象时, Union 按该顺序枚举 firstsecond 生成尚未生成的每个元素。

该方法 Concat 不同于 Union 该方法,因为 Concat 该方法返回输入序列中的所有元素,包括重复项,而 Union 只返回唯一值。

适用于