如何创建应用包 (C++)

了解如何使用打包 API 为Windows应用创建应用包。

如果要手动创建桌面应用包,还可以使用利用 打包 API 的MakeAppx.exe工具。 有关详细信息,请参阅 应用打包程序 (MakeAppx.exe)

如果使用Visual Studio,建议使用Visual Studio打包向导来打包应用。 有关详细信息,请参阅使用 Visual Studio 打包 UWP 应用

说明

步骤 1:创建包编写器

若要创建包编写器,请调用 IAppxFactory::CreatePackageWriter 方法。 第一个参数是将写入包的输出流。 第二个参数是指向指定包设置 APPX_PACKAGE_SETTINGS 结构的指针。 第三个参数是一个输出参数,它接收指向 IAppxPackageWriter 指针的指针。

#include <windows.h>
#include <shlwapi.h>
#include <AppxPackaging.h>

// We store the produced package under this file name.
const LPCWSTR OutputPackagePath = L"HelloWorld.appx";

int wmain()
{
    HRESULT hr = S_OK;

    // Specify the appropriate COM threading model
    hr = CoInitializeEx(NULL, COINIT_MULTITHREADED);

    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
    {
        // Create a package writer
        IAppxPackageWriter* packageWriter = NULL;

        hr = GetPackageWriter(OutputPackagePath, &packageWriter);
    }
}

//
// Creates an app package writer with default settings.
//
// Parameters:
//   outputFileName  
//     Fully qualified name of the app package (.appx file) to be created.
//   writer 
//     On success, receives the created instance of IAppxPackageWriter.
//
HRESULT GetPackageWriter(
    _In_ LPCWSTR outputFileName,
    _Outptr_ IAppxPackageWriter** writer)
{
    const LPCWSTR Sha256AlgorithmUri = L"https://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#sha256"; 
    HRESULT hr = S_OK;
    IStream* outputStream = NULL;
    IUri* hashMethod = NULL;
    APPX_PACKAGE_SETTINGS packageSettings = {0};
    IAppxFactory* appxFactory = NULL;

    // Create a stream over the output file for the package 
    hr = SHCreateStreamOnFileEx(
            outputFileName,
            STGM_CREATE | STGM_WRITE | STGM_SHARE_EXCLUSIVE,
            0,     // default file attributes
            TRUE,  // create file if it does not exist
            NULL,  // no template
            &outputStream);

    // Create default package writer settings, including hash algorithm URI
    // and Zip format.
    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
    {        hr = CreateUri(
                Sha256AlgorithmUri,
                Uri_CREATE_CANONICALIZE,
                0, // reserved parameter
                &hashMethod);
    }

    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
    {
        packageSettings.forceZip32 = TRUE;
        packageSettings.hashMethod = hashMethod;
    }

    // Create a new Appx factory
    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
    {
        hr = CoCreateInstance(
                __uuidof(AppxFactory),
                NULL,
                CLSCTX_INPROC_SERVER,
                __uuidof(IAppxFactory),
                (LPVOID*)(&appxFactory));
    }

    // Create a new package writer using the factory
    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
    {
        hr = appxFactory->CreatePackageWriter(
                outputStream,
                &packageSettings,
                writer);
    }

    // Clean up allocated resources
    if (appxFactory != NULL)
    {
        appxFactory->Release();
        appxFactory = NULL;
    }
    if (hashMethod != NULL)
    {
        hashMethod->Release();
        hashMethod = NULL;
    }
    if (outputStream != NULL)
    {
        outputStream->Release();
        outputStream = NULL;
    }
    return hr;
}

步骤 2:将应用的有效负载文件添加到包

调用 IAppxPackageWriter::AddPayloadFile 方法将文件添加到包。 第一个参数是文件的相对路径。 第二个参数指示文件的内容类型。 第三个参数指定 APPX_COMPRESSION_OPTION 枚举中的选项。 第四个参数是文件的输入流。

// Path where all input files are stored
const LPCWSTR DataPath = L"Data\\";

// Add all payload files to the package writer
for (int i = 0; SUCCEEDED(hr) && (i < PayloadFilesCount); i++)
{
    IStream* fileStream = NULL;

    hr = GetFileStream(DataPath, PayloadFilesName[i], &fileStream);

    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
    {
        packageWriter->AddPayloadFile(
            PayloadFilesName[i],
            PayloadFilesContentType[i],
            PayloadFilesCompression[i],
            fileStream);
        }

        if (fileStream != NULL)
        {
            fileStream->Release();
            fileStream = NULL;
        }
    }
}

前面的代码使用这些变量定义和 GetFileStream 帮助程序函数。

#include <strsafe.h>
#include <shlwapi.h>

// The produced app package's content consists of these files, with
// corresponding content types and compression options.
const int PayloadFilesCount = 4;
const LPCWSTR PayloadFilesName[PayloadFilesCount] = {
    L"AppTile.png",
    L"Default.html",
    L"images\\smiley.jpg",
    L"Error.html",
};
const LPCWSTR PayloadFilesContentType[PayloadFilesCount] = {
    L"image/png",
    L"text/html",
    L"image/jpeg",
    L"text/html",
};
const APPX_COMPRESSION_OPTION PayloadFilesCompression[PayloadFilesCount] = {
    APPX_COMPRESSION_OPTION_NONE,
    APPX_COMPRESSION_OPTION_NORMAL,
    APPX_COMPRESSION_OPTION_NONE,
    APPX_COMPRESSION_OPTION_NORMAL,
};

//
// Creates a readable IStream over the specified file. For simplicity, we assume that the fully 
// qualified file name is 100 characters or less. Your code should 
// handle longer names, and allocate the buffer dynamically.
//
// Parameters:
//   path 
//      Path of the folder that contains the file to be opened; must end with a '\'
//   fileName 
//      Name, of the file to be opened, not including the path
//   stream 
//      On success, receives the created instance of IStream
//
HRESULT GetFileStream(
    _In_ LPCWSTR path,
    _In_ LPCWSTR fileName,
    _Outptr_ IStream** stream)
{
    HRESULT hr = S_OK;
    const int MaxFileNameLength = 100;
    WCHAR fullFileName[MaxFileNameLength + 1];

    // Create full file name by concatenating path and fileName
    hr = StringCchCopyW(fullFileName, MaxFileNameLength, path);
    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
    {
        hr = StringCchCat(fullFileName, MaxFileNameLength, fileName);
    }

    // Create stream for reading the file
    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
    {
        hr = SHCreateStreamOnFileEx(
                fullFileName,
                STGM_READ | STGM_SHARE_EXCLUSIVE,
                0,      // default file attributes
                FALSE,  // don't create new file
                NULL,   // no template
                stream);
    }
    return hr;
}

步骤 3:将包清单添加到包

每个包都必须有一个包清单。 若要将包清单添加到包,请为文件创建输入流,然后调用 IAppxPackageWriter::Close 方法以在包末尾写入清单,并关闭包编写器的输出流。

此代码使用 GetFileStream 上一步骤中显示的帮助程序函数为包清单创建流。

// We read the app package's manifest from this file
const LPCWSTR ManifestFileName = L"AppxManifest.xml";

IStream* manifestStream = NULL;

hr = GetFileStream(DataPath, ManifestFileName, &manifestStream);

if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
{
    hr = packageWriter->Close(manifestStream);
}

if (manifestStream != NULL)
{
    manifestStream->Release();
    manifestStream = NULL;
}

步骤 4:清理包编写器

在从 wmain 函数返回之前,请调用 Release 方法以清理包编写器并调用 CoUninitialize 函数。

if (packageWriter != NULL)
{
    packageWriter->Release();
    packageWriter = NULL;
}
CoUninitialize();

示例

创建应用包示例

参考

IAppxPackageWriter