Array.Sort 方法

定義

排序一維陣列中的項目。

多載

Sort(Array, Array, Int32, Int32, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維 Array 物件中某範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

Sort(Array, Int32, Int32, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,排序一維 Array 中項目範圍內的項目。

Sort(Array, Array, Int32, Int32)

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable 實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維的 Array 物件中某個範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

Sort(Array, Int32, Int32)

使用 Array 的每個項目的 IComparable 實作,排序一維 Array 中某個項目範圍內的項目。

Sort(Array, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,排序一維 Array 中的項目。

Sort(Array, Array)

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable 實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維的 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

Sort(Array)

使用 Array 的每個項目的 IComparable 實作,排序整個一維 Array 中的項目。

Sort(Array, Array, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維的 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

Sort<T>(T[])

使用 Array 的每個項目之 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,排序整個 Array 中的項目。

Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,排序 Array 中的項目。

Sort<T>(T[], Comparison<T>)

使用指定的 Comparison<T>,排序 Array 中的項目。

Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32)

使用 Array 的每個項目之 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,排序 Array 中某個項目範圍中的項目。

Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<T>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,對 Array 中的某個項目範圍內的項目進行排序。

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[])

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], IComparer<TKey>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32)

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件中某個範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件中某範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

Sort(Array, Array, Int32, Int32, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維 Array 物件中某範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ keys, Array ^ items, int index, int length, System::Collections::IComparer ^ comparer);
public static void Sort (Array keys, Array items, int index, int length, System.Collections.IComparer comparer);
public static void Sort (Array keys, Array? items, int index, int length, System.Collections.IComparer? comparer);
static member Sort : Array * Array * int * int * System.Collections.IComparer -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort (keys As Array, items As Array, index As Integer, length As Integer, comparer As IComparer)

參數

keys
Array

一維 Array,包含要排序的索引鍵。

items
Array

一維 Array,包含對應至 keysArray 中每個索引鍵的項目。

-或-

null 表示只排序 keysArray

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。

comparer
IComparer

比較項目時所要使用的 IComparer 實作。

-或-

null 表示會使用每個項目的 IComparable 實作。

例外狀況

keysnull

keysArray 是多維的。

-或-

itemsArray 是多維的。

index 小於 keys 的下限。

-或-

length 小於零。

items 不是 null,且 keys 的下限與 items 的下限不相符。

-或-

items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。

-或-

indexlength 未指定 keysArray 中的有效範圍。

-或-

items 不是 null,且 indexlength 未指定 itemsArray 中的有效範圍。

-或-

comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。

comparernull,而且 keysArray 中的一或多個元素不會實作 IComparable 介面。

範例

下列程式碼範例示範如何排序兩個相關聯的陣列,其中第一個陣列包含索引鍵,而第二個數組包含值。 排序是使用預設比較子和反轉排序次序的自訂比較子來完成。 請注意,結果可能會因目前的 CultureInfo 而有所不同。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class myReverserClass: public IComparer
{
private:

   // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare( Object^ x, Object^ y ) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare( y, x ));
   }
};

void PrintKeysAndValues( array<String^>^myKeys, array<String^>^myValues )
{
   for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys->Length; i++ )
   {
      Console::WriteLine( " {0, -10}: {1}", myKeys[ i ], myValues[ i ] );
   }
   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^myKeys = {"red","GREEN","YELLOW","BLUE","purple","black","orange"};
   array<String^>^myValues = {"strawberries","PEARS","LIMES","BERRIES","grapes","olives","cantaloupe"};
   IComparer^ myComparer = gcnew myReverserClass;

   // Displays the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class SamplesArray  {

   public class myReverserClass : IComparer  {

      // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      int IComparer.Compare( Object x, Object y )  {
          return( (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare( y, x ) );
      }
   }

   public static void Main()  {

      // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      String[] myKeys = { "red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange" };
      String[] myValues = { "strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe" };
      IComparer myComparer = new myReverserClass();

      // Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
   }

   public static void PrintKeysAndValues( String[] myKeys, String[] myValues )  {
      for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys.Length; i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys[i], myValues[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}


/*
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/
open System
open System.Collections

type MyReverserClass() = 
    interface IComparer with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
            CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)

let printKeysAndValues (myKeys: string []) (myValues: string []) =
    for i = 0 to myKeys.Length - 1 do
        printfn $"   {myKeys[i],-10}: {myValues[i]}"
    printfn ""

// Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
let myKeys = [| "red"; "GREEN"; "YELLOW"; "BLUE"; "purple"; "black"; "orange" |]
let myValues = [| "strawberries"; "PEARS"; "LIMES"; "BERRIES"; "grapes"; "olives"; "cantaloupe" |]
let myComparer = MyReverserClass()

// Displays the values of the Array.
printfn "The Array initially contains the following values:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues 

// Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3)
printfn "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" 
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues

// Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer)
printfn "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues

// Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues)
printfn "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues

// Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, myComparer)
printfn "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues


// This code produces the following output.
//     The Array initially contains the following values:
//        red       : strawberries
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        purple    : grapes
//        black     : olives
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//     
//     After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
//        red       : strawberries
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        purple    : grapes
//        black     : olives
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//     
//     After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//        red       : strawberries
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        purple    : grapes
//        black     : olives
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//     
//     After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
//        black     : olives
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//        purple    : grapes
//        red       : strawberries
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//     
//     After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        red       : strawberries
//        purple    : grapes
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        black     : olives
Imports System.Collections

Public Class SamplesArray

   Public Class myReverserClass
      Implements IComparer

      ' Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      Function Compare(x As [Object], y As [Object]) As Integer _
         Implements IComparer.Compare
         Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
      End Function 'IComparer.Compare

   End Class


   Public Shared Sub Main()

      ' Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      Dim myKeys As [String]() =  {"red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange"}
      Dim myValues As [String]() =  {"strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe"}
      Dim myComparer = New myReverserClass()

      ' Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine("The Array initially contains the following values:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

   End Sub


   Public Shared Sub PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys() As [String], myValues() As [String])

      Dim i As Integer
      For i = 0 To myKeys.Length - 1
         Console.WriteLine("   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys(i), myValues(i))
      Next i
      Console.WriteLine()

   End Sub

End Class


'This code produces the following output.
'
'The Array initially contains the following values:
'   red       : strawberries
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
'   black     : olives
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   purple    : grapes
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   red       : strawberries
'   purple    : grapes
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   black     : olives

備註

中的每個 keysArray 索引鍵都有 中的 itemsArray 對應專案。 在排序期間重新置放索引鍵時,中的 itemsArray 對應專案同樣會重新置放。 因此, itemsArray 會根據 中 keysArray 對應索引鍵的相片順序排序 。

如果 comparernull ,則 中的 keysArray 指定專案範圍內每個索引鍵都必須實 IComparable 作 介面,才能與其他每個索引鍵進行比較。

如果專案超過索引鍵,您可以排序,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。 如果索引鍵超過專案,則無法排序;這樣做會擲回 ArgumentException

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

.NET 包含下表所列的預先 IComparer 定義實作。

實作 描述
System.Collections.CaseInsensitiveComparer 比較任兩個物件,但會執行不區分大小寫的字串比較。
Comparer.Default 使用目前文化特性的排序慣例,比較任兩個物件。
Comparer.DefaultInvariant 使用不變異文化特性的排序慣例,比較任兩個物件。
Comparer<T>.Default 使用類型的預設排序次序,比較類型的兩個物件 T

您也可以將自己的 IComparercomparer 作實例提供給 參數,以支援自訂比較。 此範例會藉由定義自訂 IComparer 實作來反轉預設排序次序,並執行不區分大小寫的字串比較來執行此動作。

此方法使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積 演算法。

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,則可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄 n) n 作業,其中 nlength

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和舊版只使用 Quicksort 演算法。 Quicksort 會在排序作業擲 IndexOutOfRangeException 回例外狀況時識別不正確比較子,並將例外狀況擲 ArgumentException 回給呼叫端。 從 .NET Framework 4.5 開始,先前擲 ArgumentException 回的排序作業可能不會擲回例外狀況,因為插入排序和堆積排序演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。 在大部分的情況下,這適用于小於或等於 16 個元素的陣列。

另請參閱

適用於

Sort(Array, Int32, Int32, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,排序一維 Array 中項目範圍內的項目。

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ array, int index, int length, System::Collections::IComparer ^ comparer);
public static void Sort (Array array, int index, int length, System.Collections.IComparer comparer);
public static void Sort (Array array, int index, int length, System.Collections.IComparer? comparer);
static member Sort : Array * int * int * System.Collections.IComparer -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort (array As Array, index As Integer, length As Integer, comparer As IComparer)

參數

array
Array

要排序的一維 Array

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。

comparer
IComparer

比較項目時所要使用的 IComparer 實作。

-或-

null 表示會使用每個項目的 IComparable 實作。

例外狀況

arraynull

array 是多維的。

index 小於 array 的下限。

-或-

length 小於零。

indexlength 未指定 array 中的有效範圍。

-或-

comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。

comparernull,而且 array 中的一或多個項目沒有實作 IComparable 介面。

範例

下列程式碼範例示範如何使用預設比較子排序 中的 Array 值,以及反轉排序次序的自訂比較子。 請注意,結果可能會因目前的 CultureInfo 而有所不同。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class ReverseComparer : IComparer
{
public:
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare(Object^ x, Object^ y) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare(y, x));
   }
};

void DisplayValues(array<String^>^ arr)
{
   for (int i = arr->GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr->GetUpperBound(0); i++)
      Console::WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[ i ] );

   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Create and initialize a new array. and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^ words = { "The","QUICK","BROWN","FOX","jumps",
                             "over","the","lazy","dog" };
   // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
   IComparer^ revComparer = gcnew ReverseComparer();
   
   // Display the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : BROWN
   [3] : FOX
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : BROWN
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : QUICK
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : BROWN
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : BROWN
   [1] : dog
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : jumps
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : over
   [6] : QUICK
   [7] : the
   [8] : The

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : the
   [1] : The
   [2] : QUICK
   [3] : over
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : jumps
   [6] : FOX
   [7] : dog
   [8] : BROWN

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class ReverseComparer : IComparer
{
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   public int Compare(Object x, Object y)
   {
       return (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare(y, x );
   }
}

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      // Create and initialize a new array.
      String[] words = { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps",
                         "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" };
      // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
      IComparer revComparer = new ReverseComparer();

      // Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);
   }

   public static void DisplayValues(String[] arr)
   {
      for ( int i = arr.GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr.GetUpperBound(0);
            i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    The original order of elements in the array:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : BROWN
//       [3] : FOX
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : BROWN
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : QUICK
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : BROWN
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : BROWN
//       [1] : dog
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : jumps
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : QUICK
//       [7] : the
//       [8] : The
//
//    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : the
//       [1] : The
//       [2] : QUICK
//       [3] : over
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : jumps
//       [6] : FOX
//       [7] : dog
//       [8] : BROWN
open System
open System.Collections

type ReverseComparer() =
    interface IComparer with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
            CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)

let displayValues (arr: string []) = 
    for i = 0 to arr.Length - 1 do
        printfn $"   [{i}] : {arr[i]}"
    printfn ""

// Create and initialize a new array.
let words = 
    [| "The"; "QUICK"; "BROWN"; "FOX"; "jumps"
       "over"; "the"; "lazy"; "dog" |]

// Instantiate the reverse comparer.
let revComparer = ReverseComparer()

// Display the values of the array.
printfn "The original order of elements in the array:" 
displayValues words

// Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort(words, 1, 3)
printfn "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:"
displayValues words

// Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer)
printfn "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
displayValues words

// Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort words
printfn "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:"
displayValues words

// Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(words, revComparer)
printfn "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
displayValues words

// The example displays the following output:
//    The original order of elements in the array:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : BROWN
//       [3] : FOX
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : BROWN
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : QUICK
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : BROWN
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : BROWN
//       [1] : dog
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : jumps
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : QUICK
//       [7] : the
//       [8] : The
//
//    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : the
//       [1] : The
//       [2] : QUICK
//       [3] : over
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : jumps
//       [6] : FOX
//       [7] : dog
//       [8] : BROWN
Imports System.Collections

Public Class ReverseComparer : Implements IComparer
   ' Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   Function Compare(x As Object, y As Object) As Integer _
            Implements IComparer.Compare
      Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
   End Function 
End Class

Public Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      ' Create and initialize a new array.
      Dim words() As String =  { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps", 
                                 "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" }
      ' Instantiate a new custom comparer.
      Dim revComparer As New ReverseComparer()

      ' Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" )
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)
   End Sub 

   Public Sub DisplayValues(arr() As String)
      For i As Integer = arr.GetLowerBound(0) To arr.GetUpperBound(0)
         Console.WriteLine("   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr(i))
      Next 
      Console.WriteLine()
   End Sub 
End Module 
' The example displays the following output:
'    The original order of elements in the array:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : BROWN
'       [3] : FOX
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : BROWN
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : QUICK
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : BROWN
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : BROWN
'       [1] : dog
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : jumps
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : QUICK
'       [7] : the
'       [8] : The
'    
'    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : the
'       [1] : The
'       [2] : QUICK
'       [3] : over
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : jumps
'       [6] : FOX
'       [7] : dog
'       [8] : BROWN

備註

如果 comparernull ,中 array 指定之元素範圍內的每個元素都必須實 IComparable 作 介面,才能與 中 array 其他每個元素進行比較。

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

.NET 包含下表所列的預先定義 IComparer 實作。

實作 描述
System.Collections.CaseInsensitiveComparer 比較任兩個物件,但會執行不區分大小寫的字串比較。
Comparer.Default 使用目前文化特性的排序慣例,比較任兩個物件。
Comparer.DefaultInvariant 使用不因文化特性而異的排序慣例,比較任兩個物件。
Comparer<T>.Default 使用類型的預設排序次序,比較類型的 T 兩個物件。

您也可以將自己的 IComparer 實作實例提供給 參數,以支援 comparer 自訂比較。 此範例會藉由定義 ReverseComparer 類別來反轉類型實例的預設排序次序,並執行不區分大小寫的字串比較。

這個方法會使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積演算法

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄 n) n 作業,其中 nlength

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和舊版只使用 Quicksort 演算法。 Quicksort 會在排序作業擲 IndexOutOfRangeException 回例外狀況時識別不正確比較子,並將例外狀況擲 ArgumentException 回給呼叫端。 從 .NET Framework 4.5 開始,先前擲 ArgumentException 回的排序作業可能不會擲回例外狀況,因為插入排序和堆積排序演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。 在大部分的情況下,這適用于小於或等於 16 個元素的陣列。

另請參閱

適用於

Sort(Array, Array, Int32, Int32)

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable 實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維的 Array 物件中某個範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ keys, Array ^ items, int index, int length);
public static void Sort (Array keys, Array items, int index, int length);
public static void Sort (Array keys, Array? items, int index, int length);
static member Sort : Array * Array * int * int -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort (keys As Array, items As Array, index As Integer, length As Integer)

參數

keys
Array

一維 Array,包含要排序的索引鍵。

items
Array

一維 Array,包含對應至 keysArray 中每個索引鍵的項目。

-或-

null 表示只排序 keysArray

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。

例外狀況

keysnull

keysArray 是多維的。

-或-

itemsArray 是多維的。

index 小於 keys 的下限。

-或-

length 小於零。

items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。

-或-

indexlength 未指定 keysArray 中的有效範圍。

-或-

items 不是 null,且 indexlength 未指定 itemsArray 中的有效範圍。

keysArray 中的一或多個元素不會實作 IComparable 介面。

範例

下列程式碼範例示範如何排序兩個相關聯的陣列,其中第一個陣列包含索引鍵,而第二個數組包含值。 排序是使用預設比較子和自訂比較子來反轉排序次序來完成。 請注意,結果可能會因目前的 CultureInfo 而有所不同。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class myReverserClass: public IComparer
{
private:

   // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare( Object^ x, Object^ y ) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare( y, x ));
   }
};

void PrintKeysAndValues( array<String^>^myKeys, array<String^>^myValues )
{
   for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys->Length; i++ )
   {
      Console::WriteLine( " {0, -10}: {1}", myKeys[ i ], myValues[ i ] );
   }
   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^myKeys = {"red","GREEN","YELLOW","BLUE","purple","black","orange"};
   array<String^>^myValues = {"strawberries","PEARS","LIMES","BERRIES","grapes","olives","cantaloupe"};
   IComparer^ myComparer = gcnew myReverserClass;

   // Displays the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class SamplesArray  {

   public class myReverserClass : IComparer  {

      // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      int IComparer.Compare( Object x, Object y )  {
          return( (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare( y, x ) );
      }
   }

   public static void Main()  {

      // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      String[] myKeys = { "red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange" };
      String[] myValues = { "strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe" };
      IComparer myComparer = new myReverserClass();

      // Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
   }

   public static void PrintKeysAndValues( String[] myKeys, String[] myValues )  {
      for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys.Length; i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys[i], myValues[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}


/*
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/
open System
open System.Collections

type MyReverserClass() = 
    interface IComparer with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
            CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)

let printKeysAndValues (myKeys: string []) (myValues: string []) =
    for i = 0 to myKeys.Length - 1 do
        printfn $"   {myKeys[i],-10}: {myValues[i]}"
    printfn ""

// Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
let myKeys = [| "red"; "GREEN"; "YELLOW"; "BLUE"; "purple"; "black"; "orange" |]
let myValues = [| "strawberries"; "PEARS"; "LIMES"; "BERRIES"; "grapes"; "olives"; "cantaloupe" |]
let myComparer = MyReverserClass()

// Displays the values of the Array.
printfn "The Array initially contains the following values:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues 

// Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3)
printfn "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" 
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues

// Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer)
printfn "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues

// Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues)
printfn "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues

// Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, myComparer)
printfn "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues


// This code produces the following output.
//     The Array initially contains the following values:
//        red       : strawberries
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        purple    : grapes
//        black     : olives
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//     
//     After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
//        red       : strawberries
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        purple    : grapes
//        black     : olives
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//     
//     After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//        red       : strawberries
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        purple    : grapes
//        black     : olives
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//     
//     After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
//        black     : olives
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//        purple    : grapes
//        red       : strawberries
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//     
//     After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        red       : strawberries
//        purple    : grapes
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        black     : olives
Imports System.Collections

Public Class SamplesArray

   Public Class myReverserClass
      Implements IComparer

      ' Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      Function Compare(x As [Object], y As [Object]) As Integer _
         Implements IComparer.Compare
         Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
      End Function 'IComparer.Compare

   End Class


   Public Shared Sub Main()

      ' Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      Dim myKeys As [String]() =  {"red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange"}
      Dim myValues As [String]() =  {"strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe"}
      Dim myComparer = New myReverserClass()

      ' Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine("The Array initially contains the following values:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

   End Sub


   Public Shared Sub PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys() As [String], myValues() As [String])

      Dim i As Integer
      For i = 0 To myKeys.Length - 1
         Console.WriteLine("   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys(i), myValues(i))
      Next i
      Console.WriteLine()

   End Sub

End Class


'This code produces the following output.
'
'The Array initially contains the following values:
'   red       : strawberries
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
'   black     : olives
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   purple    : grapes
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   red       : strawberries
'   purple    : grapes
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   black     : olives

備註

中的每個 keysArray 索引鍵都有 中的 itemsArray 對應專案。 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,中的 itemsArray 對應專案會同樣地重新置放。 因此,會 itemsArray 根據 中 keysArray 對應索引鍵的相片順序排序 。

中指定專案 keysArray 範圍內的每個索引鍵都必須實 IComparable 作 介面,才能與其他索引鍵進行比較。

如果專案超過索引鍵,您可以排序,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。 如果索引鍵超過專案,則無法排序;這樣做會擲回 ArgumentException

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

這個方法會使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積演算法

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄 n) n 作業,其中 nlength

另請參閱

適用於

Sort(Array, Int32, Int32)

使用 Array 的每個項目的 IComparable 實作,排序一維 Array 中某個項目範圍內的項目。

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ array, int index, int length);
public static void Sort (Array array, int index, int length);
static member Sort : Array * int * int -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort (array As Array, index As Integer, length As Integer)

參數

array
Array

要排序的一維 Array

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。

例外狀況

arraynull

array 是多維的。

index 小於 array 的下限。

-或-

length 小於零。

indexlength 未指定 array 中的有效範圍。

array 中的一或多個項目未實作 IComparable 介面。

範例

下列程式碼範例示範如何使用預設比較子排序 中的 Array 值,以及反轉排序次序的自訂比較子。 請注意,結果可能會因目前的 CultureInfo 而有所不同。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class ReverseComparer : IComparer
{
public:
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare(Object^ x, Object^ y) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare(y, x));
   }
};

void DisplayValues(array<String^>^ arr)
{
   for (int i = arr->GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr->GetUpperBound(0); i++)
      Console::WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[ i ] );

   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Create and initialize a new array. and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^ words = { "The","QUICK","BROWN","FOX","jumps",
                             "over","the","lazy","dog" };
   // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
   IComparer^ revComparer = gcnew ReverseComparer();
   
   // Display the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : BROWN
   [3] : FOX
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : BROWN
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : QUICK
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : BROWN
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : BROWN
   [1] : dog
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : jumps
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : over
   [6] : QUICK
   [7] : the
   [8] : The

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : the
   [1] : The
   [2] : QUICK
   [3] : over
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : jumps
   [6] : FOX
   [7] : dog
   [8] : BROWN

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class ReverseComparer : IComparer
{
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   public int Compare(Object x, Object y)
   {
       return (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare(y, x );
   }
}

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      // Create and initialize a new array.
      String[] words = { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps",
                         "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" };
      // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
      IComparer revComparer = new ReverseComparer();

      // Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);
   }

   public static void DisplayValues(String[] arr)
   {
      for ( int i = arr.GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr.GetUpperBound(0);
            i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    The original order of elements in the array:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : BROWN
//       [3] : FOX
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : BROWN
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : QUICK
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : BROWN
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : BROWN
//       [1] : dog
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : jumps
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : QUICK
//       [7] : the
//       [8] : The
//
//    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : the
//       [1] : The
//       [2] : QUICK
//       [3] : over
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : jumps
//       [6] : FOX
//       [7] : dog
//       [8] : BROWN
open System
open System.Collections

type ReverseComparer() =
    interface IComparer with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
            CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)

let displayValues (arr: string []) = 
    for i = 0 to arr.Length - 1 do
        printfn $"   [{i}] : {arr[i]}"
    printfn ""

// Create and initialize a new array.
let words = 
    [| "The"; "QUICK"; "BROWN"; "FOX"; "jumps"
       "over"; "the"; "lazy"; "dog" |]

// Instantiate the reverse comparer.
let revComparer = ReverseComparer()

// Display the values of the array.
printfn "The original order of elements in the array:" 
displayValues words

// Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort(words, 1, 3)
printfn "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:"
displayValues words

// Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer)
printfn "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
displayValues words

// Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort words
printfn "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:"
displayValues words

// Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(words, revComparer)
printfn "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
displayValues words

// The example displays the following output:
//    The original order of elements in the array:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : BROWN
//       [3] : FOX
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : BROWN
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : QUICK
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : BROWN
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : BROWN
//       [1] : dog
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : jumps
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : QUICK
//       [7] : the
//       [8] : The
//
//    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : the
//       [1] : The
//       [2] : QUICK
//       [3] : over
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : jumps
//       [6] : FOX
//       [7] : dog
//       [8] : BROWN
Imports System.Collections

Public Class ReverseComparer : Implements IComparer
   ' Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   Function Compare(x As Object, y As Object) As Integer _
            Implements IComparer.Compare
      Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
   End Function 
End Class

Public Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      ' Create and initialize a new array.
      Dim words() As String =  { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps", 
                                 "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" }
      ' Instantiate a new custom comparer.
      Dim revComparer As New ReverseComparer()

      ' Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" )
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)
   End Sub 

   Public Sub DisplayValues(arr() As String)
      For i As Integer = arr.GetLowerBound(0) To arr.GetUpperBound(0)
         Console.WriteLine("   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr(i))
      Next 
      Console.WriteLine()
   End Sub 
End Module 
' The example displays the following output:
'    The original order of elements in the array:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : BROWN
'       [3] : FOX
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : BROWN
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : QUICK
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : BROWN
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : BROWN
'       [1] : dog
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : jumps
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : QUICK
'       [7] : the
'       [8] : The
'    
'    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : the
'       [1] : The
'       [2] : QUICK
'       [3] : over
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : jumps
'       [6] : FOX
'       [7] : dog
'       [8] : BROWN

備註

array 指定專案範圍內的每個元素都必須實 IComparable 作 介面,才能與 中的每個 array 其他專案進行比較。

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

這個方法會使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積演算法

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄 n) n 作業,其中 nlength

另請參閱

適用於

Sort(Array, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,排序一維 Array 中的項目。

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ array, System::Collections::IComparer ^ comparer);
public static void Sort (Array array, System.Collections.IComparer comparer);
public static void Sort (Array array, System.Collections.IComparer? comparer);
static member Sort : Array * System.Collections.IComparer -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort (array As Array, comparer As IComparer)

參數

array
Array

要排序的一維陣列。

comparer
IComparer

比較元素時所要使用的實作。

-或-

null 表示會使用每個項目的 IComparable 實作。

例外狀況

arraynull

array 是多維的。

comparernull,而且 array 中的一或多個項目沒有實作 IComparable 介面。

comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。

範例

下列範例會使用預設比較子來排序字串陣列中的值。 它也會定義名為 ReverseComparer 的自訂 IComparer 實作,此實作會在執行不區分大小寫的字串比較時反轉物件的預設排序次序。 請注意,輸出可能會根據目前的文化特性而有所不同。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class ReverseComparer : IComparer
{
public:
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare(Object^ x, Object^ y) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare(y, x));
   }
};

void DisplayValues(array<String^>^ arr)
{
   for (int i = arr->GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr->GetUpperBound(0); i++)
      Console::WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[ i ] );

   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Create and initialize a new array. and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^ words = { "The","QUICK","BROWN","FOX","jumps",
                             "over","the","lazy","dog" };
   // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
   IComparer^ revComparer = gcnew ReverseComparer();
   
   // Display the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : BROWN
   [3] : FOX
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : BROWN
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : QUICK
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : BROWN
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : BROWN
   [1] : dog
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : jumps
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : over
   [6] : QUICK
   [7] : the
   [8] : The

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : the
   [1] : The
   [2] : QUICK
   [3] : over
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : jumps
   [6] : FOX
   [7] : dog
   [8] : BROWN

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class ReverseComparer : IComparer
{
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   public int Compare(Object x, Object y)
   {
       return (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare(y, x );
   }
}

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      // Create and initialize a new array.
      String[] words = { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps",
                         "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" };
      // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
      IComparer revComparer = new ReverseComparer();

      // Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);
   }

   public static void DisplayValues(String[] arr)
   {
      for ( int i = arr.GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr.GetUpperBound(0);
            i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    The original order of elements in the array:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : BROWN
//       [3] : FOX
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : BROWN
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : QUICK
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : BROWN
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : BROWN
//       [1] : dog
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : jumps
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : QUICK
//       [7] : the
//       [8] : The
//
//    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : the
//       [1] : The
//       [2] : QUICK
//       [3] : over
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : jumps
//       [6] : FOX
//       [7] : dog
//       [8] : BROWN
open System
open System.Collections

type ReverseComparer() =
    interface IComparer with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
            CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)

let displayValues (arr: string []) = 
    for i = 0 to arr.Length - 1 do
        printfn $"   [{i}] : {arr[i]}"
    printfn ""

// Create and initialize a new array.
let words = 
    [| "The"; "QUICK"; "BROWN"; "FOX"; "jumps"
       "over"; "the"; "lazy"; "dog" |]

// Instantiate the reverse comparer.
let revComparer = ReverseComparer()

// Display the values of the array.
printfn "The original order of elements in the array:" 
displayValues words

// Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort(words, 1, 3)
printfn "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:"
displayValues words

// Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer)
printfn "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
displayValues words

// Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort words
printfn "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:"
displayValues words

// Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(words, revComparer)
printfn "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
displayValues words

// The example displays the following output:
//    The original order of elements in the array:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : BROWN
//       [3] : FOX
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : BROWN
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : QUICK
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : BROWN
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : BROWN
//       [1] : dog
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : jumps
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : QUICK
//       [7] : the
//       [8] : The
//
//    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : the
//       [1] : The
//       [2] : QUICK
//       [3] : over
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : jumps
//       [6] : FOX
//       [7] : dog
//       [8] : BROWN
Imports System.Collections

Public Class ReverseComparer : Implements IComparer
   ' Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   Function Compare(x As Object, y As Object) As Integer _
            Implements IComparer.Compare
      Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
   End Function 
End Class

Public Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      ' Create and initialize a new array.
      Dim words() As String =  { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps", 
                                 "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" }
      ' Instantiate a new custom comparer.
      Dim revComparer As New ReverseComparer()

      ' Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" )
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)
   End Sub 

   Public Sub DisplayValues(arr() As String)
      For i As Integer = arr.GetLowerBound(0) To arr.GetUpperBound(0)
         Console.WriteLine("   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr(i))
      Next 
      Console.WriteLine()
   End Sub 
End Module 
' The example displays the following output:
'    The original order of elements in the array:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : BROWN
'       [3] : FOX
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : BROWN
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : QUICK
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : BROWN
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : BROWN
'       [1] : dog
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : jumps
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : QUICK
'       [7] : the
'       [8] : The
'    
'    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : the
'       [1] : The
'       [2] : QUICK
'       [3] : over
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : jumps
'       [6] : FOX
'       [7] : dog
'       [8] : BROWN

備註

如果 為 nullcomparer ,則 的每個 專案 array 都必須實 IComparable 作 介面,才能與 中的每個 array 其他專案進行比較。

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

這個方法會使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積演算法

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄) n 作業,其中 nLengtharrayn

.NET 包含下表所列的預先定義 IComparer 實作。

實作 描述
System.Collections.CaseInsensitiveComparer 比較任兩個物件,但會執行不區分大小寫的字串比較。
Comparer.Default 使用目前文化特性的排序慣例,比較任兩個物件。
Comparer.DefaultInvariant 使用不因文化特性而異的排序慣例,比較任兩個物件。
Comparer<T>.Default 使用類型的預設排序次序,比較類型的 T 兩個物件。

您也可以將自己的 IComparer 實作實例提供給 參數,以支援 comparer 自訂比較。 此範例會藉由定義 ReverseComparer 類別來反轉類型實例的預設排序次序,並執行不區分大小寫的字串比較。

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和較舊版本只使用 Quicksort 演算法。 Quicksort 會識別某些情況下不正確比較子,其中排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並將例外狀況擲 ArgumentException 回給呼叫端。 從 .NET Framework 4.5 開始,先前擲回的排序作業可能不會擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況,因為插入排序和堆積演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。 在大部分的情況下,這適用于小於或等於 16 個元素的陣列。

另請參閱

適用於

Sort(Array, Array)

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable 實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維的 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ keys, Array ^ items);
public static void Sort (Array keys, Array items);
public static void Sort (Array keys, Array? items);
static member Sort : Array * Array -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort (keys As Array, items As Array)

參數

keys
Array

一維 Array,包含要排序的索引鍵。

items
Array

一維 Array,包含對應至 keysArray 中每個索引鍵的項目。

-或-

null 表示只排序 keysArray

例外狀況

keysnull

keysArray 是多維的。

-或-

itemsArray 是多維的。

items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。

keysArray 中的一或多個元素不會實作 IComparable 介面。

範例

下列範例示範如何排序兩個相關聯的陣列,其中第一個陣列包含索引鍵,而第二個數組包含值。 排序是使用預設比較子和自訂比較子來反轉排序次序來完成。 請注意,結果可能會因目前的 CultureInfo 而有所不同。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class myReverserClass: public IComparer
{
private:

   // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare( Object^ x, Object^ y ) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare( y, x ));
   }
};

void PrintKeysAndValues( array<String^>^myKeys, array<String^>^myValues )
{
   for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys->Length; i++ )
   {
      Console::WriteLine( " {0, -10}: {1}", myKeys[ i ], myValues[ i ] );
   }
   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^myKeys = {"red","GREEN","YELLOW","BLUE","purple","black","orange"};
   array<String^>^myValues = {"strawberries","PEARS","LIMES","BERRIES","grapes","olives","cantaloupe"};
   IComparer^ myComparer = gcnew myReverserClass;

   // Displays the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class SamplesArray  {

   public class myReverserClass : IComparer  {

      // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      int IComparer.Compare( Object x, Object y )  {
          return( (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare( y, x ) );
      }
   }

   public static void Main()  {

      // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      String[] myKeys = { "red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange" };
      String[] myValues = { "strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe" };
      IComparer myComparer = new myReverserClass();

      // Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
   }

   public static void PrintKeysAndValues( String[] myKeys, String[] myValues )  {
      for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys.Length; i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys[i], myValues[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}


/*
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/
open System
open System.Collections

type MyReverserClass() = 
    interface IComparer with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
            CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)

let printKeysAndValues (myKeys: string []) (myValues: string []) =
    for i = 0 to myKeys.Length - 1 do
        printfn $"   {myKeys[i],-10}: {myValues[i]}"
    printfn ""

// Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
let myKeys = [| "red"; "GREEN"; "YELLOW"; "BLUE"; "purple"; "black"; "orange" |]
let myValues = [| "strawberries"; "PEARS"; "LIMES"; "BERRIES"; "grapes"; "olives"; "cantaloupe" |]
let myComparer = MyReverserClass()

// Displays the values of the Array.
printfn "The Array initially contains the following values:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues 

// Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3)
printfn "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" 
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues

// Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer)
printfn "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues

// Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues)
printfn "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues

// Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, myComparer)
printfn "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues


// This code produces the following output.
//     The Array initially contains the following values:
//        red       : strawberries
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        purple    : grapes
//        black     : olives
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//     
//     After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
//        red       : strawberries
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        purple    : grapes
//        black     : olives
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//     
//     After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//        red       : strawberries
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        purple    : grapes
//        black     : olives
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//     
//     After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
//        black     : olives
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//        purple    : grapes
//        red       : strawberries
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//     
//     After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        red       : strawberries
//        purple    : grapes
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        black     : olives
Imports System.Collections

Public Class SamplesArray

   Public Class myReverserClass
      Implements IComparer

      ' Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      Function Compare(x As [Object], y As [Object]) As Integer _
         Implements IComparer.Compare
         Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
      End Function 'IComparer.Compare

   End Class


   Public Shared Sub Main()

      ' Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      Dim myKeys As [String]() =  {"red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange"}
      Dim myValues As [String]() =  {"strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe"}
      Dim myComparer = New myReverserClass()

      ' Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine("The Array initially contains the following values:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

   End Sub


   Public Shared Sub PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys() As [String], myValues() As [String])

      Dim i As Integer
      For i = 0 To myKeys.Length - 1
         Console.WriteLine("   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys(i), myValues(i))
      Next i
      Console.WriteLine()

   End Sub

End Class


'This code produces the following output.
'
'The Array initially contains the following values:
'   red       : strawberries
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
'   black     : olives
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   purple    : grapes
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   red       : strawberries
'   purple    : grapes
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   black     : olives

備註

中的每個 keysArray 索引鍵都有 中的 itemsArray 對應專案。 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,中的 itemsArray 對應專案會同樣地重新置放。 因此,會 itemsArray 根據 中 keysArray 對應索引鍵的相片順序排序 。

中的每個 keysArray 索引鍵都必須實作 IComparable 介面,才能與其他每個索引鍵進行比較。

如果專案超過索引鍵,您可以排序,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。 如果索引鍵超過專案,則無法排序;這樣做會擲回 ArgumentException

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

這個方法會使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積演算法

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄) n 作業,其中 nLengthkeysn

另請參閱

適用於

Sort(Array)

使用 Array 的每個項目的 IComparable 實作,排序整個一維 Array 中的項目。

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ array);
public static void Sort (Array array);
static member Sort : Array -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort (array As Array)

參數

array
Array

要排序的一維 Array

例外狀況

arraynull

array 是多維的。

array 中的一或多個項目未實作 IComparable 介面。

範例

下列程式碼範例示範如何使用預設比較子排序 中的 Array 值,以及反轉排序次序的自訂比較子。 請注意,結果可能會因目前的 CultureInfo 而有所不同。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class ReverseComparer : IComparer
{
public:
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare(Object^ x, Object^ y) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare(y, x));
   }
};

void DisplayValues(array<String^>^ arr)
{
   for (int i = arr->GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr->GetUpperBound(0); i++)
      Console::WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[ i ] );

   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Create and initialize a new array. and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^ words = { "The","QUICK","BROWN","FOX","jumps",
                             "over","the","lazy","dog" };
   // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
   IComparer^ revComparer = gcnew ReverseComparer();
   
   // Display the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : BROWN
   [3] : FOX
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : BROWN
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : QUICK
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : BROWN
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : BROWN
   [1] : dog
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : jumps
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : over
   [6] : QUICK
   [7] : the
   [8] : The

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : the
   [1] : The
   [2] : QUICK
   [3] : over
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : jumps
   [6] : FOX
   [7] : dog
   [8] : BROWN

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class ReverseComparer : IComparer
{
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   public int Compare(Object x, Object y)
   {
       return (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare(y, x );
   }
}

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      // Create and initialize a new array.
      String[] words = { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps",
                         "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" };
      // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
      IComparer revComparer = new ReverseComparer();

      // Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);
   }

   public static void DisplayValues(String[] arr)
   {
      for ( int i = arr.GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr.GetUpperBound(0);
            i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    The original order of elements in the array:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : BROWN
//       [3] : FOX
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : BROWN
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : QUICK
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : BROWN
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : BROWN
//       [1] : dog
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : jumps
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : QUICK
//       [7] : the
//       [8] : The
//
//    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : the
//       [1] : The
//       [2] : QUICK
//       [3] : over
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : jumps
//       [6] : FOX
//       [7] : dog
//       [8] : BROWN
open System
open System.Collections

type ReverseComparer() =
    interface IComparer with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
            CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)

let displayValues (arr: string []) = 
    for i = 0 to arr.Length - 1 do
        printfn $"   [{i}] : {arr[i]}"
    printfn ""

// Create and initialize a new array.
let words = 
    [| "The"; "QUICK"; "BROWN"; "FOX"; "jumps"
       "over"; "the"; "lazy"; "dog" |]

// Instantiate the reverse comparer.
let revComparer = ReverseComparer()

// Display the values of the array.
printfn "The original order of elements in the array:" 
displayValues words

// Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort(words, 1, 3)
printfn "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:"
displayValues words

// Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer)
printfn "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
displayValues words

// Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort words
printfn "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:"
displayValues words

// Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(words, revComparer)
printfn "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
displayValues words

// The example displays the following output:
//    The original order of elements in the array:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : BROWN
//       [3] : FOX
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : BROWN
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : QUICK
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : BROWN
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//
//    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : BROWN
//       [1] : dog
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : jumps
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : QUICK
//       [7] : the
//       [8] : The
//
//    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : the
//       [1] : The
//       [2] : QUICK
//       [3] : over
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : jumps
//       [6] : FOX
//       [7] : dog
//       [8] : BROWN
Imports System.Collections

Public Class ReverseComparer : Implements IComparer
   ' Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   Function Compare(x As Object, y As Object) As Integer _
            Implements IComparer.Compare
      Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
   End Function 
End Class

Public Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      ' Create and initialize a new array.
      Dim words() As String =  { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps", 
                                 "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" }
      ' Instantiate a new custom comparer.
      Dim revComparer As New ReverseComparer()

      ' Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" )
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)
   End Sub 

   Public Sub DisplayValues(arr() As String)
      For i As Integer = arr.GetLowerBound(0) To arr.GetUpperBound(0)
         Console.WriteLine("   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr(i))
      Next 
      Console.WriteLine()
   End Sub 
End Module 
' The example displays the following output:
'    The original order of elements in the array:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : BROWN
'       [3] : FOX
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : BROWN
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : QUICK
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : BROWN
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : BROWN
'       [1] : dog
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : jumps
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : QUICK
'       [7] : the
'       [8] : The
'    
'    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : the
'       [1] : The
'       [2] : QUICK
'       [3] : over
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : jumps
'       [6] : FOX
'       [7] : dog
'       [8] : BROWN

備註

的每個元素 array 都必須實作 IComparable 介面,才能與 中的每個 array 其他元素進行比較。

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

這個方法會使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積演算法

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄) n 作業,其中 nLengtharrayn

另請參閱

適用於

Sort(Array, Array, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維的 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ keys, Array ^ items, System::Collections::IComparer ^ comparer);
public static void Sort (Array keys, Array items, System.Collections.IComparer comparer);
public static void Sort (Array keys, Array? items, System.Collections.IComparer? comparer);
static member Sort : Array * Array * System.Collections.IComparer -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort (keys As Array, items As Array, comparer As IComparer)

參數

keys
Array

一維 Array,包含要排序的索引鍵。

items
Array

一維 Array,包含對應至 keysArray 中每個索引鍵的項目。

-或-

null 表示只排序 keysArray

comparer
IComparer

比較項目時所要使用的 IComparer 實作。

-或-

null 表示會使用每個項目的 IComparable 實作。

例外狀況

keysnull

keysArray 是多維的。

-或-

itemsArray 是多維的。

items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。

-或-

comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。

comparernull,而且 keysArray 中的一或多個元素不會實作 IComparable 介面。

範例

下列範例示範如何排序兩個相關聯的陣列,其中第一個陣列包含索引鍵,而第二個數組包含值。 排序是使用預設比較子和自訂比較子來反轉排序次序來完成。 請注意,結果可能會因目前的 CultureInfo 而有所不同。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class myReverserClass: public IComparer
{
private:

   // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare( Object^ x, Object^ y ) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare( y, x ));
   }
};

void PrintKeysAndValues( array<String^>^myKeys, array<String^>^myValues )
{
   for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys->Length; i++ )
   {
      Console::WriteLine( " {0, -10}: {1}", myKeys[ i ], myValues[ i ] );
   }
   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^myKeys = {"red","GREEN","YELLOW","BLUE","purple","black","orange"};
   array<String^>^myValues = {"strawberries","PEARS","LIMES","BERRIES","grapes","olives","cantaloupe"};
   IComparer^ myComparer = gcnew myReverserClass;

   // Displays the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class SamplesArray  {

   public class myReverserClass : IComparer  {

      // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      int IComparer.Compare( Object x, Object y )  {
          return( (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare( y, x ) );
      }
   }

   public static void Main()  {

      // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      String[] myKeys = { "red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange" };
      String[] myValues = { "strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe" };
      IComparer myComparer = new myReverserClass();

      // Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
   }

   public static void PrintKeysAndValues( String[] myKeys, String[] myValues )  {
      for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys.Length; i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys[i], myValues[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}


/*
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/
open System
open System.Collections

type MyReverserClass() = 
    interface IComparer with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
            CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)

let printKeysAndValues (myKeys: string []) (myValues: string []) =
    for i = 0 to myKeys.Length - 1 do
        printfn $"   {myKeys[i],-10}: {myValues[i]}"
    printfn ""

// Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
let myKeys = [| "red"; "GREEN"; "YELLOW"; "BLUE"; "purple"; "black"; "orange" |]
let myValues = [| "strawberries"; "PEARS"; "LIMES"; "BERRIES"; "grapes"; "olives"; "cantaloupe" |]
let myComparer = MyReverserClass()

// Displays the values of the Array.
printfn "The Array initially contains the following values:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues 

// Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3)
printfn "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" 
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues

// Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer)
printfn "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues

// Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues)
printfn "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues

// Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, myComparer)
printfn "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:"
printKeysAndValues myKeys myValues


// This code produces the following output.
//     The Array initially contains the following values:
//        red       : strawberries
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        purple    : grapes
//        black     : olives
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//     
//     After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
//        red       : strawberries
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        purple    : grapes
//        black     : olives
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//     
//     After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//        red       : strawberries
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        purple    : grapes
//        black     : olives
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//     
//     After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
//        black     : olives
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//        purple    : grapes
//        red       : strawberries
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//     
//     After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//        YELLOW    : LIMES
//        red       : strawberries
//        purple    : grapes
//        orange    : cantaloupe
//        GREEN     : PEARS
//        BLUE      : BERRIES
//        black     : olives
Imports System.Collections

Public Class SamplesArray

   Public Class myReverserClass
      Implements IComparer

      ' Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      Function Compare(x As [Object], y As [Object]) As Integer _
         Implements IComparer.Compare
         Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
      End Function 'IComparer.Compare

   End Class


   Public Shared Sub Main()

      ' Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      Dim myKeys As [String]() =  {"red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange"}
      Dim myValues As [String]() =  {"strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe"}
      Dim myComparer = New myReverserClass()

      ' Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine("The Array initially contains the following values:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

   End Sub


   Public Shared Sub PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys() As [String], myValues() As [String])

      Dim i As Integer
      For i = 0 To myKeys.Length - 1
         Console.WriteLine("   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys(i), myValues(i))
      Next i
      Console.WriteLine()

   End Sub

End Class


'This code produces the following output.
'
'The Array initially contains the following values:
'   red       : strawberries
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
'   black     : olives
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   purple    : grapes
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   red       : strawberries
'   purple    : grapes
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   black     : olives

備註

中的每個 keysArray 索引鍵都有 中的 itemsArray 對應專案。 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,中的 itemsArray 對應專案會同樣地重新置放。 因此,會 itemsArray 根據 中 keysArray 對應索引鍵的相片順序排序 。

如果 為 nullcomparer ,則 keysArray 中的每個索引鍵都必須實 IComparable 作 介面,才能與其他每個索引鍵進行比較。

如果專案超過索引鍵,您可以排序,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。 如果索引鍵超過專案,則無法排序;這樣做會擲回 ArgumentException

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

.NET 包含下表所列的預先定義 IComparer 實作。

實作 描述
System.Collections.CaseInsensitiveComparer 比較任兩個物件,但會執行不區分大小寫的字串比較。
Comparer.Default 使用目前文化特性的排序慣例,比較任兩個物件。
Comparer.DefaultInvariant 使用不因文化特性而異的排序慣例,比較任兩個物件。
Comparer<T>.Default 使用類型的預設排序次序,比較類型的 T 兩個物件。

您也可以將自己的 IComparer 實作實例提供給 參數,以支援 comparer 自訂比較。 此範例會藉由定義 IComparer 實作來反轉預設排序次序,並執行不區分大小寫的字串比較。

這個方法會使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積演算法

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄) n 作業,其中 nLengthkeysn

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和較舊版本只使用 Quicksort 演算法。 Quicksort 會識別某些情況下不正確比較子,其中排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並將例外狀況擲 ArgumentException 回給呼叫端。 從 .NET Framework 4.5 開始,先前擲回的排序作業可能不會擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況,因為插入排序和堆積演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。 在大部分的情況下,這適用于小於或等於 16 個元素的陣列。

另請參閱

適用於

Sort<T>(T[])

使用 Array 的每個項目之 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,排序整個 Array 中的項目。

public:
generic <typename T>
 static void Sort(cli::array <T> ^ array);
public static void Sort<T> (T[] array);
static member Sort : 'T[] -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of T) (array As T())

類型參數

T

陣列項目的類型。

參數

array
T[]

要排序之以零為起始的一維 Array

例外狀況

arraynull

array 中的一個或多個項目不會實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort<T>(T[]) 泛型方法多載和 BinarySearch<T>(T[], T) 泛型方法多載。 系統會建立字串陣列,不依特定順序建立。

陣列隨即顯示、排序,並再次顯示。

注意

對 和 BinarySearch 泛型方法的呼叫 Sort 看起來與對非泛型方法的呼叫不同,因為 Visual Basic、C# 和 C++ 會從第一個引數的類型推斷泛型型別參數的類型。 如果您使用Ildasm.exe (IL 反組譯程式) 來檢查Microsoft中繼語言 (MSIL) ,您可以看到正在呼叫泛型方法。

接著會 BinarySearch<T>(T[], T) 使用泛型方法多載來搜尋兩個字串,一個不在陣列中,另一個則為 。 方法的 BinarySearch 陣列和傳回值會傳遞至 ShowWhere 泛型方法,如果找到字串,則會顯示索引值,否則搜尋字串在陣列中時會落在之間。 如果字串不是陣列 n,則 ShowWhere 索引為負數,因此方法會採用位補數 (C# 和 Visual C++ 中的 ~ 運算子,在 Visual Basic 中為 -1) Xor ,以取得清單中大於搜尋字串之第一個專案的索引。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

generic<typename T> void ShowWhere(array<T>^ arr, int index)
{
    if (index<0)
    {
        // If the index is negative, it represents the bitwise
        // complement of the next larger element in the array.
        //
        index = ~index;

        Console::Write("Not found. Sorts between: ");

        if (index == 0)
            Console::Write("beginning of array and ");
        else
            Console::Write("{0} and ", arr[index-1]);

        if (index == arr->Length)
            Console::WriteLine("end of array.");
        else
            Console::WriteLine("{0}.", arr[index]);
    }
    else
    {
        Console::WriteLine("Found at index {0}.", index);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus", 
                                 "Amargasaurus", 
                                 "Tyrannosaurus", 
                                 "Mamenchisaurus", 
                                 "Deinonychus", 
                                 "Edmontosaurus"};

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':");
    int index = Array::BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Coelophysis");
    ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);

    Console::WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':");
    index = Array::BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Tyrannosaurus");
    ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Edmontosaurus

Sort

Amargasaurus
Deinonychus
Edmontosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Pachycephalosaurus
Tyrannosaurus

BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':
Not found. Sorts between: Amargasaurus and Deinonychus.

BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':
Found at index 5.
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus",
                              "Amargasaurus",
                              "Tyrannosaurus",
                              "Mamenchisaurus",
                              "Deinonychus",
                              "Edmontosaurus"};

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs);

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':");
        int index = Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Coelophysis");
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);

        Console.WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':");
        index = Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Tyrannosaurus");
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);
    }

    private static void ShowWhere<T>(T[] array, int index)
    {
        if (index<0)
        {
            // If the index is negative, it represents the bitwise
            // complement of the next larger element in the array.
            //
            index = ~index;

            Console.Write("Not found. Sorts between: ");

            if (index == 0)
                Console.Write("beginning of array and ");
            else
                Console.Write("{0} and ", array[index-1]);

            if (index == array.Length)
                Console.WriteLine("end of array.");
            else
                Console.WriteLine("{0}.", array[index]);
        }
        else
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Found at index {0}.", index);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Edmontosaurus

Sort

Amargasaurus
Deinonychus
Edmontosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Pachycephalosaurus
Tyrannosaurus

BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':
Not found. Sorts between: Amargasaurus and Deinonychus.

BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':
Found at index 5.
 */
open System

let showWhere (array: 'a []) index =
    if index < 0 then
        // If the index is negative, it represents the bitwise
        // complement of the next larger element in the array.
        let index = ~~~index

        printf "Not found. Sorts between: "

        if index = 0 then
            printf "beginning of array and "
        else
            printf $"{array[index - 1]} and "

        if index = array.Length then
            printfn "end of array."
        else
            printfn $"{array[index]}."
    else
        printfn $"Found at index {index}."

let dinosaurs =
    [| "Pachycephalosaurus"
       "Amargasaurus"
       "Tyrannosaurus"
       "Mamenchisaurus"
       "Deinonychus"
       "Edmontosaurus" |]

printfn ""
for dino in dinosaurs do
    printfn $"{dino}"

printfn "\nSort"
Array.Sort dinosaurs

printfn ""
for dino in dinosaurs do
    printfn $"{dino}"

printfn "\nBinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':"
let index = Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Coelophysis")
showWhere dinosaurs index

printfn "\nBinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':"
Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Tyrannosaurus")
|> showWhere dinosaurs


// This code example produces the following output:
//
//     Pachycephalosaurus
//     Amargasaurus
//     Tyrannosaurus
//     Mamenchisaurus
//     Deinonychus
//     Edmontosaurus
//
//     Sort
//
//     Amargasaurus
//     Deinonychus
//     Edmontosaurus
//     Mamenchisaurus
//     Pachycephalosaurus
//     Tyrannosaurus
//
//     BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':
//     Not found. Sorts between: Amargasaurus and Deinonychus.
//
//     BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':
//     Found at index 5.
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Pachycephalosaurus", _
            "Amargasaurus", _
            "Tyrannosaurus", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Deinonychus", _
            "Edmontosaurus"  }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':")
        Dim index As Integer = _
            Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Coelophysis")
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index)

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':")
        index = Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Tyrannosaurus")
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index)

    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub ShowWhere(Of T) _
        (ByVal array() As T, ByVal index As Integer) 

        If index < 0 Then
            ' If the index is negative, it represents the bitwise
            ' complement of the next larger element in the array.
            '
            index = index Xor -1

            Console.Write("Not found. Sorts between: ")

            If index = 0 Then
                Console.Write("beginning of array and ")
            Else
                Console.Write("{0} and ", array(index - 1))
            End If 

            If index = array.Length Then
                Console.WriteLine("end of array.")
            Else
                Console.WriteLine("{0}.", array(index))
            End If 
        Else
            Console.WriteLine("Found at index {0}.", index)
        End If

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Deinonychus
'Edmontosaurus
'
'Sort
'
'Amargasaurus
'Deinonychus
'Edmontosaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'
'BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':
'Not found. Sorts between: Amargasaurus and Deinonychus.
'
'BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':
'Found at index 5.

備註

的每個元素 array 都必須實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面,才能與 中的每個 array 其他專案進行比較。

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

這個方法會使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積演算法

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄) n 作業,其中 nLengtharrayn

另請參閱

適用於

Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,排序 Array 中的項目。

public:
generic <typename T>
 static void Sort(cli::array <T> ^ array, System::Collections::Generic::IComparer<T> ^ comparer);
public static void Sort<T> (T[] array, System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<T> comparer);
public static void Sort<T> (T[] array, System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<T>? comparer);
static member Sort : 'T[] * System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<'T> -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of T) (array As T(), comparer As IComparer(Of T))

類型參數

T

陣列項目的類型。

參數

array
T[]

要排序的一維零基底 Array

comparer
IComparer<T>

在比較項目時所使用的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面實作,或 null 使用每個項目的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作。

例外狀況

arraynull

comparernull,且 array 中的一個或多個項目不會實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。

comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>) 泛型方法多載和 BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) 泛型方法多載。

程式碼範例會針對名為 ReverseCompare 的字串定義替代比較子,它會 IComparer<string> 在 Visual Basic 中實作 Visual Basic 中的 (IComparer(Of String)IComparer<String^>) 泛型介面。 比較子會呼叫 CompareTo(String) 方法,反轉比較子的順序,讓字串排序高到低,而不是低到高。

陣列隨即顯示、排序,並再次顯示。 陣列必須經過排序,才能使用 BinarySearch 方法。

注意

對 和 BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) 泛型方法的呼叫 Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>) 看起來與對非泛型方法的呼叫不同,因為 Visual Basic、C# 和 C++ 會從第一個引數的類型推斷泛型型別參數的類型。 如果您使用Ildasm.exe (IL 反組譯程式) 來檢查Microsoft中繼語言 (MSIL) ,您可以看到正在呼叫泛型方法。

接著會 BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) 使用泛型方法多載來搜尋兩個字串,一個不在陣列中,另一個則為 。 方法的 BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) 陣列和傳回值會傳遞至 ShowWhere 泛型方法,如果找到字串,則會顯示索引值,否則搜尋字串在陣列中時會落在之間。 如果字串不是陣列 n,則 ShowWhere 索引為負數,因此方法會採用位補數 (C# 和 Visual C++ 中的 ~ 運算子,在 Visual Basic 中為 -1) Xor ,以取得清單中大於搜尋字串之第一個專案的索引。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class ReverseComparer: IComparer<String^>
{
public:
    virtual int Compare(String^ x, String^ y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y->CompareTo(x);
    }
};

generic<typename T> void ShowWhere(array<T>^ arr, int index)
{
    if (index<0)
    {
        // If the index is negative, it represents the bitwise
        // complement of the next larger element in the array.
        //
        index = ~index;

        Console::Write("Not found. Sorts between: ");

        if (index == 0)
            Console::Write("beginning of array and ");
        else
            Console::Write("{0} and ", arr[index-1]);

        if (index == arr->Length)
            Console::WriteLine("end of array.");
        else
            Console::WriteLine("{0}.", arr[index]);
    }
    else
    {
        Console::WriteLine("Found at index {0}.", index);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus", 
                                 "Amargasaurus", 
                                 "Tyrannosaurus", 
                                 "Mamenchisaurus", 
                                 "Deinonychus", 
                                 "Edmontosaurus"};

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    ReverseComparer^ rc = gcnew ReverseComparer();

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':");
    int index = Array::BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Coelophysis", rc);
    ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);

    Console::WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':");
    index = Array::BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Tyrannosaurus", rc);
    ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Edmontosaurus

Sort

Tyrannosaurus
Pachycephalosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Edmontosaurus
Deinonychus
Amargasaurus

BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':
Not found. Sorts between: Deinonychus and Amargasaurus.

BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':
Found at index 0.
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus",
                              "Amargasaurus",
                              "Tyrannosaurus",
                              "Mamenchisaurus",
                              "Deinonychus",
                              "Edmontosaurus"};

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':");
        int index = Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Coelophysis", rc);
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);

        Console.WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':");
        index = Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Tyrannosaurus", rc);
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);
    }

    private static void ShowWhere<T>(T[] array, int index)
    {
        if (index<0)
        {
            // If the index is negative, it represents the bitwise
            // complement of the next larger element in the array.
            //
            index = ~index;

            Console.Write("Not found. Sorts between: ");

            if (index == 0)
                Console.Write("beginning of array and ");
            else
                Console.Write("{0} and ", array[index-1]);

            if (index == array.Length)
                Console.WriteLine("end of array.");
            else
                Console.WriteLine("{0}.", array[index]);
        }
        else
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Found at index {0}.", index);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Edmontosaurus

Sort

Tyrannosaurus
Pachycephalosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Edmontosaurus
Deinonychus
Amargasaurus

BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':
Not found. Sorts between: Deinonychus and Amargasaurus.

BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':
Found at index 0.
 */
open System
open System.Collections.Generic

type ReverseComparer() =
    interface IComparer<string> with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            // Compare y and x in reverse order.
            y.CompareTo x

let showWhere (array: 'a []) index =
    if index < 0 then
        // If the index is negative, it represents the bitwise
        // complement of the next larger element in the array.
        let index = ~~~index

        printf "Not found. Sorts between: "

        if index = 0 then
            printf "beginning of array and "
        else
            printf $"{array[index - 1]} and "

        if index = array.Length then
            printfn "end of array."
        else
            printfn $"{array[index]}."
    else
        printfn $"Found at index {index}."

let dinosaurs =
    [| "Pachycephalosaurus"
       "Amargasaurus"
       "Tyrannosaurus"
       "Mamenchisaurus"
       "Deinonychus"
       "Edmontosaurus" |]

printfn ""
for dino in dinosaurs do
    printfn $"{dino}"

let rc = ReverseComparer()

printfn "\nSort"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, rc)

printfn ""
for dino in dinosaurs do
    printfn $"{dino}"

printfn "\nBinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':"
Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Coelophysis", rc)
|> showWhere dinosaurs

printfn "\nBinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':"
Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Tyrannosaurus", rc)
|> showWhere dinosaurs


// This code example produces the following output:
//     Pachycephalosaurus
//     Amargasaurus
//     Tyrannosaurus
//     Mamenchisaurus
//     Deinonychus
//     Edmontosaurus
//
//     Sort
//
//     Tyrannosaurus
//     Pachycephalosaurus
//     Mamenchisaurus
//     Edmontosaurus
//     Deinonychus
//     Amargasaurus
//
//     BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':
//     Not found. Sorts between: Deinonychus and Amargasaurus.
//
//     BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':
//     Found at index 0.
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class ReverseComparer
    Implements IComparer(Of String)

    Public Function Compare(ByVal x As String, _
        ByVal y As String) As Integer _
        Implements IComparer(Of String).Compare

        ' Compare y and x in reverse order.
        Return y.CompareTo(x)

    End Function
End Class

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Pachycephalosaurus", _
            "Amargasaurus", _
            "Tyrannosaurus", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Deinonychus", _
            "Edmontosaurus"  }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Dim rc As New ReverseComparer()

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':")
        Dim index As Integer = _
            Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Coelophysis", rc)
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index)

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':")
        index = Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Tyrannosaurus", rc)
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index)

    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub ShowWhere(Of T) _
        (ByVal array() As T, ByVal index As Integer) 

        If index < 0 Then
            ' If the index is negative, it represents the bitwise
            ' complement of the next larger element in the array.
            '
            index = index Xor -1

            Console.Write("Not found. Sorts between: ")

            If index = 0 Then
                Console.Write("beginning of array and ")
            Else
                Console.Write("{0} and ", array(index - 1))
            End If 

            If index = array.Length Then
                Console.WriteLine("end of array.")
            Else
                Console.WriteLine("{0}.", array(index))
            End If 
        Else
            Console.WriteLine("Found at index {0}.", index)
        End If

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Deinonychus
'Edmontosaurus
'
'Sort
'
'Tyrannosaurus
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Edmontosaurus
'Deinonychus
'Amargasaurus
'
'BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':
'Not found. Sorts between: Deinonychus and Amargasaurus.
'
'BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':
'Found at index 0.

備註

如果 為 nullcomparer ,則 的每個 專案 array 都必須實 IComparable<T> 作泛型介面,才能與 中的 array 所有其他元素進行比較。

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

這個方法會使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積演算法

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄) n 作業,其中 nLengtharrayn

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和較舊版本只使用 Quicksort 演算法。 Quicksort 會識別某些情況下不正確比較子,其中排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並將例外狀況擲 ArgumentException 回給呼叫端。 從 .NET Framework 4.5 開始,先前擲回的排序作業可能不會擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況,因為插入排序和堆積演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。 在大部分的情況下,這適用于小於或等於 16 個元素的陣列。

另請參閱

適用於

Sort<T>(T[], Comparison<T>)

使用指定的 Comparison<T>,排序 Array 中的項目。

public:
generic <typename T>
 static void Sort(cli::array <T> ^ array, Comparison<T> ^ comparison);
public static void Sort<T> (T[] array, Comparison<T> comparison);
static member Sort : 'T[] * Comparison<'T> -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of T) (array As T(), comparison As Comparison(Of T))

類型參數

T

陣列項目的類型。

參數

array
T[]

要排序之以零為起始的一維 Array

comparison
Comparison<T>

比較項目時所要使用的 Comparison<T>

例外狀況

arraynull

-或-

comparisonnull

comparison 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparison 可能不會傳回 0。

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort(Comparison<T>) 方法多載。

程式碼範例會為名為 CompareDinosByLength 的字串定義替代比較方法。 此方法的運作方式如下:首先,比較子會經過測試 null ,並將 Null 參考視為小於非 Null。 其次,會比較字串長度,而且較長的字串會被視為更大。 第三,如果長度相等,則會使用一般字串比較。

系統會建立字串陣列,並以四個字串填入,不依特定順序填入。 此清單也包含空字串和 Null 參考。 清單隨即顯示,使用 Comparison<T> 代表 方法的 CompareDinosByLength 泛型委派進行排序,然後再次顯示。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

int CompareDinosByLength(String^ x, String^ y)
{
    if (x == nullptr)
    {
        if (y == nullptr)
        {
            // If x is null and y is null, they're
            // equal. 
            return 0;
        }
        else
        {
            // If x is null and y is not null, y
            // is greater. 
            return -1;
        }
    }
    else
    {
        // If x is not null...
        //
        if (y == nullptr)
            // ...and y is null, x is greater.
        {
            return 1;
        }
        else
        {
            // ...and y is not null, compare the 
            // lengths of the two strings.
            //
            int retval = x->Length.CompareTo(y->Length);

            if (retval != 0)
            {
                // If the strings are not of equal length,
                // the longer string is greater.
                //
                return retval;
            }
            else
            {
                // If the strings are of equal length,
                // sort them with ordinary string comparison.
                //
                return x->CompareTo(y);
            }
        }
    }
};

void Display(array<String^>^ arr)
{
    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ s in arr)
    {
        if (s == nullptr)
            Console::WriteLine("(null)");
        else
            Console::WriteLine("\"{0}\"", s);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = { 
        "Pachycephalosaurus",
        "Amargasaurus",
        "",
        nullptr,
        "Mamenchisaurus",
        "Deinonychus" };
    Display(dinosaurs);

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort with generic Comparison<String^> delegate:");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs,
        gcnew Comparison<String^>(CompareDinosByLength));
    Display(dinosaurs);

}

/* This code example produces the following output:

"Pachycephalosaurus"
"Amargasaurus"
""
(null)
"Mamenchisaurus"
"Deinonychus"

Sort with generic Comparison<String^> delegate:

(null)
""
"Deinonychus"
"Amargasaurus"
"Mamenchisaurus"
"Pachycephalosaurus"
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class Example
{
    private static int CompareDinosByLength(string x, string y)
    {
        if (x == null)
        {
            if (y == null)
            {
                // If x is null and y is null, they're
                // equal.
                return 0;
            }
            else
            {
                // If x is null and y is not null, y
                // is greater.
                return -1;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            // If x is not null...
            //
            if (y == null)
                // ...and y is null, x is greater.
            {
                return 1;
            }
            else
            {
                // ...and y is not null, compare the
                // lengths of the two strings.
                //
                int retval = x.Length.CompareTo(y.Length);

                if (retval != 0)
                {
                    // If the strings are not of equal length,
                    // the longer string is greater.
                    //
                    return retval;
                }
                else
                {
                    // If the strings are of equal length,
                    // sort them with ordinary string comparison.
                    //
                    return x.CompareTo(y);
                }
            }
        }
    }

    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {
            "Pachycephalosaurus",
            "Amargasaurus",
            "",
            null,
            "Mamenchisaurus",
            "Deinonychus" };
        Display(dinosaurs);

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort with generic Comparison<string> delegate:");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, CompareDinosByLength);
        Display(dinosaurs);
    }

    private static void Display(string[] arr)
    {
        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string s in arr )
        {
            if (s == null)
                Console.WriteLine("(null)");
            else
                Console.WriteLine("\"{0}\"", s);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

"Pachycephalosaurus"
"Amargasaurus"
""
(null)
"Mamenchisaurus"
"Deinonychus"

Sort with generic Comparison<string> delegate:

(null)
""
"Deinonychus"
"Amargasaurus"
"Mamenchisaurus"
"Pachycephalosaurus"
 */
open System

let compareDinosByLength (x: string) (y: string) =
    match x with
    // If x is null and y is null, they're equal.
    | null when isNull y -> 0 
    // If x is null and y is not null, y is greater.
    | null -> -1
    // If x is not null and y is null, x is greater.
    | _ when isNull y -> 1    
    // If x is not null and y is not null, compare the lengths of the two strings.
    | _ ->
        let retval = x.Length.CompareTo y.Length
        if retval <> 0 then
            // If the strings are not of equal length, the longer string is greater.
            retval
        else
            // If the strings are of equal length, sort them with ordinary string comparison.
            x.CompareTo y

let display arr =
    printfn ""
    for s in arr do
        if isNull s then
            printfn "(null)"
        else
            printfn $"\"{s}\""

let dinosaurs =
    [| "Pachycephalosaurus"
       "Amargasaurus"
       ""
       null
       "Mamenchisaurus"
       "Deinonychus" |]
       
display dinosaurs

printfn "\nSort with generic Comparison<string> delegate:"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, compareDinosByLength)
display dinosaurs

// This code example produces the following output:
//
//    "Pachycephalosaurus"
//    "Amargasaurus"
//    ""
//    (null)
//    "Mamenchisaurus"
//    "Deinonychus"
//    
//    Sort with generic Comparison<string> delegate:
//    
//    (null)
//    ""
//    "Deinonychus"
//    "Amargasaurus"
//    "Mamenchisaurus"
//    "Pachycephalosaurus"
//
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class Example

    Private Shared Function CompareDinosByLength( _
        ByVal x As String, ByVal y As String) As Integer

        If x Is Nothing Then
            If y Is Nothing Then 
                ' If x is Nothing and y is Nothing, they're
                ' equal. 
                Return 0
            Else
                ' If x is Nothing and y is not Nothing, y
                ' is greater. 
                Return -1
            End If
        Else
            ' If x is not Nothing...
            '
            If y Is Nothing Then
                ' ...and y is Nothing, x is greater.
                Return 1
            Else
                ' ...and y is not Nothing, compare the 
                ' lengths of the two strings.
                '
                Dim retval As Integer = _
                    x.Length.CompareTo(y.Length)

                If retval <> 0 Then 
                    ' If the strings are not of equal length,
                    ' the longer string is greater.
                    '
                    Return retval
                Else
                    ' If the strings are of equal length,
                    ' sort them with ordinary string comparison.
                    '
                    Return x.CompareTo(y)
                End If
            End If
        End If

    End Function

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Pachycephalosaurus", _
            "Amargasaurus", _
            "", _
            Nothing, _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Deinonychus" }
        Display(dinosaurs)

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort with generic Comparison(Of String) delegate:")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, AddressOf CompareDinosByLength)
        Display(dinosaurs)

    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub Display(ByVal arr() As String)
        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each s As String In arr
            If s Is Nothing Then
                Console.WriteLine("(Nothing)")
            Else
                Console.WriteLine("""{0}""", s)
            End If
        Next
    End Sub
End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'"Pachycephalosaurus"
'"Amargasaurus"
'""
'(Nothing)
'"Mamenchisaurus"
'"Deinonychus"
'
'Sort with generic Comparison(Of String) delegate:
'
'(Nothing)
'""
'"Deinonychus"
'"Amargasaurus"
'"Mamenchisaurus"
'"Pachycephalosaurus"

備註

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

此方法使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積 演算法。

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,則可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄) n 作業,其中 nLengtharrayn

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和較舊版本只使用 Quicksort 演算法。 Quicksort 會識別某些情況下不正確比較子,其中排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並將例外狀況擲 ArgumentException 回給呼叫端。 從 .NET Framework 4.5 開始,先前擲回的排序作業可能不會擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況,因為插入排序和堆積演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。 在大部分的情況下,這適用于小於或等於 6 個元素的陣列。

另請參閱

適用於

Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32)

使用 Array 的每個項目之 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,排序 Array 中某個項目範圍中的項目。

public:
generic <typename T>
 static void Sort(cli::array <T> ^ array, int index, int length);
public static void Sort<T> (T[] array, int index, int length);
static member Sort : 'T[] * int * int -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of T) (array As T(), index As Integer, length As Integer)

類型參數

T

陣列項目的類型。

參數

array
T[]

要排序之以零為起始的一維 Array

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。

例外狀況

arraynull

index 小於 array 的下限。

-或-

length 小於零。

indexlength 未指定 array 中的有效範圍。

array 中的一個或多個項目不會實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32) 泛型方法多載和 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) 泛型方法多載,以排序陣列中的範圍。

程式碼範例會定義名為 ReverseCompare 的字串替代比較子,它會 IComparer<string> 在 Visual C++ 中實作 Visual Basic IComparer<String^> 中的 () IComparer(Of String) 泛型介面。 比較子會呼叫 CompareTo(String) 方法,反轉比較子的順序,讓字串排序高到低,而不是低到高。

程式碼範例會建立並顯示一個恐龍名稱陣列,其中包含三個 herbivores,後面接著三個 carnivors (tyrannosaurids,以精確) 。 Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32)泛型方法多載是用來排序陣列的最後三個元素,然後顯示。 泛 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) 型方法多載會與 搭配 ReverseCompare 使用,以反向順序排序最後三個專案。 徹底混淆的恐龍會再次顯示。

注意

對 和 BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) 泛型方法的呼叫不會與其非一般對應專案的呼叫 Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>) 不同,因為 Visual Basic、C# 和 C++ 會從第一個引數的類型推斷泛型型別參數的類型。 如果您使用Ildasm.exe (IL 反組譯程式) 來檢查Microsoft中繼語言 (MSIL) ,您可以看到正在呼叫泛型方法。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class ReverseComparer: IComparer<String^>
{
public:
    virtual int Compare(String^ x, String^ y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y->CompareTo(x);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus", 
                                 "Amargasaurus", 
                                 "Mamenchisaurus",
                                 "Tarbosaurus",
                                 "Tyrannosaurus", 
                                 "Albertasaurus"};

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    ReverseComparer^ rc = gcnew ReverseComparer();

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Albertasaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Albertasaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Tarbosaurus
Albertasaurus
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus",
                              "Amargasaurus",
                              "Mamenchisaurus",
                              "Tarbosaurus",
                              "Tyrannosaurus",
                              "Albertasaurus"};

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3);

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Albertasaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Albertasaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Tarbosaurus
Albertasaurus
 */
open System
open System.Collections.Generic

type ReverseComparer() =
    interface  IComparer<string> with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            y.CompareTo x

let dinosaurs = 
    [| "Pachycephalosaurus"
       "Amargasaurus"
       "Mamenchisaurus"
       "Tarbosaurus"
       "Tyrannosaurus"
       "Albertasaurus" |]

printfn ""
for dino in dinosaurs do
    printfn $"{dino}"

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)

printfn ""
for dino in dinosaurs do
    printfn $"{dino}"

let rc = ReverseComparer()

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)

printfn ""
for dino in dinosaurs do
    printfn $"{dino}"


// This code example produces the following output:
//
//    Pachycephalosaurus
//    Amargasaurus
//    Mamenchisaurus
//    Tarbosaurus
//    Tyrannosaurus
//    Albertasaurus
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)
//    
//    Pachycephalosaurus
//    Amargasaurus
//    Mamenchisaurus
//    Albertasaurus
//    Tarbosaurus
//    Tyrannosaurus
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)
//    
//    Pachycephalosaurus
//    Amargasaurus
//    Mamenchisaurus
//    Tyrannosaurus
//    Tarbosaurus
//    Albertasaurus
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class ReverseComparer
    Implements IComparer(Of String)

    Public Function Compare(ByVal x As String, _
        ByVal y As String) As Integer _
        Implements IComparer(Of String).Compare

        ' Compare y and x in reverse order.
        Return y.CompareTo(x)

    End Function
End Class

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Pachycephalosaurus", _
            "Amargasaurus", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Tarbosaurus", _
            "Tyrannosaurus", _
            "Albertasaurus"  }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Dim rc As New ReverseComparer()

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Tarbosaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'Albertasaurus
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Albertasaurus
'Tarbosaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'Tarbosaurus
'Albertasaurus

備註

array 指定之專案範圍內的每個元素都必須實 IComparable<T> 作泛型介面,才能與 中的 array 所有其他元素進行比較。

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

此方法使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積 演算法。

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,則可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄 n) n 作業,其中 nlength

另請參閱

適用於

Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<T>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,對 Array 中的某個項目範圍內的項目進行排序。

public:
generic <typename T>
 static void Sort(cli::array <T> ^ array, int index, int length, System::Collections::Generic::IComparer<T> ^ comparer);
public static void Sort<T> (T[] array, int index, int length, System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<T> comparer);
public static void Sort<T> (T[] array, int index, int length, System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<T>? comparer);
static member Sort : 'T[] * int * int * System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<'T> -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of T) (array As T(), index As Integer, length As Integer, comparer As IComparer(Of T))

類型參數

T

陣列項目的類型。

參數

array
T[]

要排序之以零為起始的一維 Array

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。

comparer
IComparer<T>

在比較項目時所使用的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面實作,或 null 使用每個項目的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作。

例外狀況

arraynull

index 小於 array 的下限。

-或-

length 小於零。

indexlength 未指定 array 中的有效範圍。

-或-

comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。

comparernull,且 array 中的一個或多個項目不會實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32) 泛型方法多載和 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) 泛型方法多載,以排序陣列中的範圍。

程式碼範例會定義名為 ReverseCompare 的字串替代比較子,它會 IComparer<string> 在 Visual C++ 中實作 Visual Basic IComparer<String^> 中的 () IComparer(Of String) 泛型介面。 比較子會呼叫 CompareTo(String) 方法,反轉比較子的順序,讓字串排序高到低,而不是低到高。

程式碼範例會建立並顯示一個恐龍名稱陣列,其中包含三個 herbivores,後面接著三個 carnivors (tyrannosaurids,以精確) 。 Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32)泛型方法多載是用來排序陣列的最後三個元素,然後顯示。 泛 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) 型方法多載會與 搭配 ReverseCompare 使用,以反向順序排序最後三個專案。 徹底混淆的恐龍會再次顯示。

注意

對 和 BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) 泛型方法的呼叫不會與其非一般對應專案的呼叫 Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>) 不同,因為 Visual Basic、C# 和 C++ 會從第一個引數的類型推斷泛型型別參數的類型。 如果您使用Ildasm.exe (IL 反組譯程式) 來檢查Microsoft中繼語言 (MSIL) ,您可以看到正在呼叫泛型方法。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class ReverseComparer: IComparer<String^>
{
public:
    virtual int Compare(String^ x, String^ y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y->CompareTo(x);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus", 
                                 "Amargasaurus", 
                                 "Mamenchisaurus",
                                 "Tarbosaurus",
                                 "Tyrannosaurus", 
                                 "Albertasaurus"};

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    ReverseComparer^ rc = gcnew ReverseComparer();

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Albertasaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Albertasaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Tarbosaurus
Albertasaurus
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus",
                              "Amargasaurus",
                              "Mamenchisaurus",
                              "Tarbosaurus",
                              "Tyrannosaurus",
                              "Albertasaurus"};

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3);

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Albertasaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Albertasaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Tarbosaurus
Albertasaurus
 */
open System
open System.Collections.Generic

type ReverseComparer() =
    interface  IComparer<string> with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            y.CompareTo x

let dinosaurs = 
    [| "Pachycephalosaurus"
       "Amargasaurus"
       "Mamenchisaurus"
       "Tarbosaurus"
       "Tyrannosaurus"
       "Albertasaurus" |]

printfn ""
for dino in dinosaurs do
    printfn $"{dino}"

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)

printfn ""
for dino in dinosaurs do
    printfn $"{dino}"

let rc = ReverseComparer()

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)

printfn ""
for dino in dinosaurs do
    printfn $"{dino}"


// This code example produces the following output:
//
//    Pachycephalosaurus
//    Amargasaurus
//    Mamenchisaurus
//    Tarbosaurus
//    Tyrannosaurus
//    Albertasaurus
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)
//    
//    Pachycephalosaurus
//    Amargasaurus
//    Mamenchisaurus
//    Albertasaurus
//    Tarbosaurus
//    Tyrannosaurus
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)
//    
//    Pachycephalosaurus
//    Amargasaurus
//    Mamenchisaurus
//    Tyrannosaurus
//    Tarbosaurus
//    Albertasaurus
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class ReverseComparer
    Implements IComparer(Of String)

    Public Function Compare(ByVal x As String, _
        ByVal y As String) As Integer _
        Implements IComparer(Of String).Compare

        ' Compare y and x in reverse order.
        Return y.CompareTo(x)

    End Function
End Class

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Pachycephalosaurus", _
            "Amargasaurus", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Tarbosaurus", _
            "Tyrannosaurus", _
            "Albertasaurus"  }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Dim rc As New ReverseComparer()

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Tarbosaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'Albertasaurus
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Albertasaurus
'Tarbosaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'Tarbosaurus
'Albertasaurus

備註

如果 為 comparernull ,則 中 array 指定之元素範圍內的每個專案都必須實 IComparable<T> 作泛型介面,才能與 中的每個 array 其他專案進行比較。

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

此方法使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積 演算法。

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,則可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄 n) n 作業,其中 nlength

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和舊版只使用 Quicksort 演算法。 Quicksort 會在排序作業擲 IndexOutOfRangeException 回例外狀況時識別不正確比較子,並將例外狀況擲 ArgumentException 回給呼叫端。 從 .NET Framework 4.5 開始,先前擲 ArgumentException 回的排序作業可能不會擲回例外狀況,因為插入排序和堆積排序演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。 在大部分的情況下,這適用于小於或等於 16 個元素的陣列。

另請參閱

適用於

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[])

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

public:
generic <typename TKey, typename TValue>
 static void Sort(cli::array <TKey> ^ keys, cli::array <TValue> ^ items);
public static void Sort<TKey,TValue> (TKey[] keys, TValue[] items);
public static void Sort<TKey,TValue> (TKey[] keys, TValue[]? items);
static member Sort : 'Key[] * 'Value[] -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of TKey, TValue) (keys As TKey(), items As TValue())

類型參數

TKey

索引鍵陣列項目的類型。

TValue

項目陣列項目的類型。

參數

keys
TKey[]

包含要排序的索引鍵在內,且以零為起始的一維 Array

items
TValue[]

包含 keys 中的索引鍵對應項目,且以零為起始的一維 Arraynull 則表示只會排序 keys

例外狀況

keysnull

items 不是 null,且 keys 的下限與 items 的下限不相符。

-或-

items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。

keysArray 中的一個或多個元素不會實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[])Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], IComparer<TKey>)Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32)Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) 泛型方法多載,以排序代表索引鍵和值的陣列配對。

程式碼範例會定義名為 ReverseCompare 的字串替代比較子,它會 IComparer<string> 在 Visual C++ 中實作 Visual Basic IComparer<String^> 中的 () IComparer(Of String) 泛型介面。 比較子會呼叫 CompareTo(String) 方法,反轉比較子的順序,讓字串排序高到低,而不是低到高。

程式碼範例會建立並顯示恐龍名稱陣列, (索引鍵) 和整數陣列,代表公尺中每個恐龍的最大長度, (值) 。 然後,陣列會排序並顯示數次:

注意

對泛型方法的呼叫不會與其非泛型對應專案的呼叫不同,因為 Visual Basic、C# 和 C++ 會從前兩個引數的類型推斷泛型型別參數的類型。 如果您使用Ildasm.exe (IL 反組譯程式) 來檢查Microsoft中繼語言 (MSIL) ,您可以看到正在呼叫泛型方法。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class ReverseComparer: IComparer<String^>
{
public:
    virtual int Compare(String^ x, String^ y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y->CompareTo(x);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus", 
            "Chasmosaurus", 
            "Coelophysis", 
            "Mamenchisaurus", 
            "Caudipteryx", 
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

    array<int>^ dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    ReverseComparer^ rc = gcnew ReverseComparer();

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus",
            "Chasmosaurus",
            "Coelophysis",
            "Mamenchisaurus",
            "Caudipteryx",
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

        int[] dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
open System
open System.Collections.Generic

type ReverseComparer() =
    interface IComparer<string> with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            y.CompareTo x

let dinosaurs =
    [| "Seismosaurus"
       "Chasmosaurus"
       "Coelophysis"
       "Mamenchisaurus"
       "Caudipteryx"
       "Cetiosaurus" |]

let dinosaurSizes = [| 40; 5; 3; 22; 1; 18 |]

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

let rc = ReverseComparer()

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

// This code example produces the following output:
//
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)
//    
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)
//    
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)
//    
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)
//    
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class ReverseComparer
    Implements IComparer(Of String)

    Public Function Compare(ByVal x As String, _
        ByVal y As String) As Integer _
        Implements IComparer(Of String).Compare

        ' Compare y and x in reverse order.
        Return y.CompareTo(x)

    End Function
End Class

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Seismosaurus", _
            "Chasmosaurus", _
            "Coelophysis", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Caudipteryx", _
            "Cetiosaurus"  }

        Dim dinosaurSizes() As Integer = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Dim rc As New ReverseComparer()

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)
'
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

備註

中的每個 keysArray 索引鍵都有 中的 itemsArray 對應專案。 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,中的 itemsArray 對應專案會同樣地重新置放。 因此,會 itemsArray 根據 中 keysArray 對應索引鍵的相片順序排序 。

中的每個 keysArray 索引鍵都必須實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面,才能與其他每個索引鍵進行比較。

如果專案超過索引鍵,您可以排序,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。 如果索引鍵超過專案,則無法排序;這樣做會擲回 ArgumentException

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

這個方法會使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積演算法

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄) n 作業,其中 nLengtharrayn

另請參閱

適用於

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], IComparer<TKey>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

public:
generic <typename TKey, typename TValue>
 static void Sort(cli::array <TKey> ^ keys, cli::array <TValue> ^ items, System::Collections::Generic::IComparer<TKey> ^ comparer);
public static void Sort<TKey,TValue> (TKey[] keys, TValue[] items, System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<TKey> comparer);
public static void Sort<TKey,TValue> (TKey[] keys, TValue[]? items, System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<TKey>? comparer);
static member Sort : 'Key[] * 'Value[] * System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<'Key> -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of TKey, TValue) (keys As TKey(), items As TValue(), comparer As IComparer(Of TKey))

類型參數

TKey

索引鍵陣列項目的類型。

TValue

項目陣列項目的類型。

參數

keys
TKey[]

包含要排序的索引鍵在內,且以零為起始的一維 Array

items
TValue[]

包含 keys 中的索引鍵對應項目,且以零為起始的一維 Arraynull 則表示只會排序 keys

comparer
IComparer<TKey>

在比較項目時所使用的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面實作,或 null 使用每個項目的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作。

例外狀況

keysnull

items 不是 null,且 keys 的下限與 items 的下限不相符。

-或-

items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。

-或-

comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。

comparernull,而且 keysArray 中的一或多個元素未實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[]) 、[]、 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], IComparer<TKey>)Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32)Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) 泛型方法多載,以排序代表索引鍵和值的陣列配對。

程式碼範例會針對名為 ReverseCompare 的字串定義替代比較子,它會 IComparer<string> 在 Visual Basic 中實作 Visual Basic 中的 (IComparer(Of String)IComparer<String^>) 泛型介面。 比較子會呼叫 CompareTo(String) 方法,反轉比較子的順序,讓字串排序高到低,而不是低到高。

此程式碼範例會建立並顯示恐龍名稱陣列, (索引鍵) 和整數陣列,代表 () 值 (每個恐龍的最大長度。 然後,陣列會排序並顯示數次:

注意

泛型方法的呼叫看起來與對非泛型方法的呼叫不同,因為 Visual Basic、C# 和 C++ 會從前兩個引數的類型推斷泛型型別參數的類型。 如果您使用Ildasm.exe (IL 反組譯程式) 來檢查Microsoft中繼語言 (MSIL) ,您可以看到正在呼叫泛型方法。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class ReverseComparer: IComparer<String^>
{
public:
    virtual int Compare(String^ x, String^ y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y->CompareTo(x);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus", 
            "Chasmosaurus", 
            "Coelophysis", 
            "Mamenchisaurus", 
            "Caudipteryx", 
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

    array<int>^ dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    ReverseComparer^ rc = gcnew ReverseComparer();

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus",
            "Chasmosaurus",
            "Coelophysis",
            "Mamenchisaurus",
            "Caudipteryx",
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

        int[] dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
open System
open System.Collections.Generic

type ReverseComparer() =
    interface IComparer<string> with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            y.CompareTo x

let dinosaurs =
    [| "Seismosaurus"
       "Chasmosaurus"
       "Coelophysis"
       "Mamenchisaurus"
       "Caudipteryx"
       "Cetiosaurus" |]

let dinosaurSizes = [| 40; 5; 3; 22; 1; 18 |]

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

let rc = ReverseComparer()

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

// This code example produces the following output:
//
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)
//    
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)
//    
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)
//    
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)
//    
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class ReverseComparer
    Implements IComparer(Of String)

    Public Function Compare(ByVal x As String, _
        ByVal y As String) As Integer _
        Implements IComparer(Of String).Compare

        ' Compare y and x in reverse order.
        Return y.CompareTo(x)

    End Function
End Class

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Seismosaurus", _
            "Chasmosaurus", _
            "Coelophysis", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Caudipteryx", _
            "Cetiosaurus"  }

        Dim dinosaurSizes() As Integer = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Dim rc As New ReverseComparer()

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)
'
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

備註

中的每個 keysArray 索引鍵都有 中的 itemsArray 對應專案。 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,中的 itemsArray 對應專案會同樣地重新置放。 因此,會 itemsArray 根據 中 keysArray 對應索引鍵的相片順序排序 。

如果 comparernull ,則 keysArray 中的每個索引鍵都必須實 IComparable<T> 作泛型介面,才能與其他每個索引鍵進行比較。

如果專案超過索引鍵,您可以排序,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。 如果索引鍵超過專案,則無法排序;這樣做會擲回 ArgumentException

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

這個方法會使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積演算法

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄) n 作業,其中 nLengtharrayn

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和較舊版本只使用 Quicksort 演算法。 Quicksort 會識別某些情況下不正確比較子,其中排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並將例外狀況擲 ArgumentException 回給呼叫端。 從 .NET Framework 4.5 開始,先前擲回的排序作業可能不會擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況,因為插入排序和堆積演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。 在大部分的情況下,這適用于小於或等於 16 個元素的陣列。

另請參閱

適用於

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32)

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件中某個範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

public:
generic <typename TKey, typename TValue>
 static void Sort(cli::array <TKey> ^ keys, cli::array <TValue> ^ items, int index, int length);
public static void Sort<TKey,TValue> (TKey[] keys, TValue[] items, int index, int length);
public static void Sort<TKey,TValue> (TKey[] keys, TValue[]? items, int index, int length);
static member Sort : 'Key[] * 'Value[] * int * int -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of TKey, TValue) (keys As TKey(), items As TValue(), index As Integer, length As Integer)

類型參數

TKey

索引鍵陣列項目的類型。

TValue

項目陣列項目的類型。

參數

keys
TKey[]

包含要排序的索引鍵在內,且以零為起始的一維 Array

items
TValue[]

包含 keys 中的索引鍵對應項目,且以零為起始的一維 Arraynull 則表示只會排序 keys

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。

例外狀況

keysnull

index 小於 keys 的下限。

-或-

length 小於零。

items 不是 null,且 keys 的下限與 items 的下限不相符。

-或-

items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。

-或-

indexlength 未指定 keysArray 中的有效範圍。

-或-

items 不是 null,且 indexlength 未指定 itemsArray 中的有效範圍。

keysArray 中的一個或多個元素不會實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[])Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], IComparer<TKey>)Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32)Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) 泛型方法多載,以排序代表索引鍵和值的陣列配對。

程式碼範例會針對名為 ReverseCompare 的字串定義替代比較子,它會 IComparer<string> 在 Visual Basic 中實作 Visual Basic 中的 (IComparer(Of String)IComparer<String^>) 泛型介面。 比較子會呼叫 CompareTo(String) 方法,反轉比較子的順序,讓字串排序高到低,而不是低到高。

此程式碼範例會建立並顯示恐龍名稱陣列, (索引鍵) 和整數陣列,代表 () 值 (每個恐龍的最大長度。 然後,陣列會排序並顯示數次:

注意

泛型方法的呼叫看起來與對非泛型方法的呼叫不同,因為 Visual Basic、C# 和 C++ 會從前兩個引數的類型推斷泛型型別參數的類型。 如果您使用Ildasm.exe (IL 反組譯程式) 來檢查Microsoft中繼語言 (MSIL) ,您可以看到正在呼叫泛型方法。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class ReverseComparer: IComparer<String^>
{
public:
    virtual int Compare(String^ x, String^ y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y->CompareTo(x);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus", 
            "Chasmosaurus", 
            "Coelophysis", 
            "Mamenchisaurus", 
            "Caudipteryx", 
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

    array<int>^ dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    ReverseComparer^ rc = gcnew ReverseComparer();

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus",
            "Chasmosaurus",
            "Coelophysis",
            "Mamenchisaurus",
            "Caudipteryx",
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

        int[] dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
open System
open System.Collections.Generic

type ReverseComparer() =
    interface IComparer<string> with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            y.CompareTo x

let dinosaurs =
    [| "Seismosaurus"
       "Chasmosaurus"
       "Coelophysis"
       "Mamenchisaurus"
       "Caudipteryx"
       "Cetiosaurus" |]

let dinosaurSizes = [| 40; 5; 3; 22; 1; 18 |]

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

let rc = ReverseComparer()

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

// This code example produces the following output:
//
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)
//    
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)
//    
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)
//    
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)
//    
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class ReverseComparer
    Implements IComparer(Of String)

    Public Function Compare(ByVal x As String, _
        ByVal y As String) As Integer _
        Implements IComparer(Of String).Compare

        ' Compare y and x in reverse order.
        Return y.CompareTo(x)

    End Function
End Class

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Seismosaurus", _
            "Chasmosaurus", _
            "Coelophysis", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Caudipteryx", _
            "Cetiosaurus"  }

        Dim dinosaurSizes() As Integer = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Dim rc As New ReverseComparer()

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)
'
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

備註

中的每個 keysArray 索引鍵都有 中的 itemsArray 對應專案。 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,中的 itemsArray 對應專案會同樣地重新置放。 因此,會 itemsArray 根據 中 keysArray 對應索引鍵的相片順序排序 。

中指定專案 keysArray 範圍內的每個索引鍵都必須實 IComparable<T> 作泛型介面,才能與其他每個索引鍵進行比較。

如果專案超過索引鍵,您可以排序,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。 如果索引鍵超過專案,則無法排序;這樣做會擲回 ArgumentException

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

這個方法會使用簡介排序 (簡介) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積演算法

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄 n) n 作業,其中 nlength

另請參閱

適用於

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件中某範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。

public:
generic <typename TKey, typename TValue>
 static void Sort(cli::array <TKey> ^ keys, cli::array <TValue> ^ items, int index, int length, System::Collections::Generic::IComparer<TKey> ^ comparer);
public static void Sort<TKey,TValue> (TKey[] keys, TValue[] items, int index, int length, System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<TKey> comparer);
public static void Sort<TKey,TValue> (TKey[] keys, TValue[]? items, int index, int length, System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<TKey>? comparer);
static member Sort : 'Key[] * 'Value[] * int * int * System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<'Key> -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of TKey, TValue) (keys As TKey(), items As TValue(), index As Integer, length As Integer, comparer As IComparer(Of TKey))

類型參數

TKey

索引鍵陣列項目的類型。

TValue

項目陣列項目的類型。

參數

keys
TKey[]

包含要排序的索引鍵在內,且以零為起始的一維 Array

items
TValue[]

包含 keys 中的索引鍵對應項目,且以零為起始的一維 Arraynull 則表示只會排序 keys

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。

comparer
IComparer<TKey>

在比較項目時所使用的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面實作,或 null 使用每個項目的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作。

例外狀況

keysnull

index 小於 keys 的下限。

-或-

length 小於零。

items 不是 null,且 keys 的下限與 items 的下限不相符。

-或-

items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。

-或-

indexlength 未指定 keysArray 中的有效範圍。

-或-

items 不是 null,且 indexlength 未指定 itemsArray 中的有效範圍。

-或-

comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。

comparernull,而且 keysArray 中的一或多個元素未實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[])Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], IComparer<TKey>)Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32)Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) 泛型方法多載,以排序代表索引鍵和值的陣列配對。

程式碼範例會針對名為 ReverseCompare 的字串定義替代比較子,它會 IComparer<string> 在 Visual Basic 中實作 Visual Basic 中的 (IComparer(Of String)IComparer<String^>) 泛型介面。 比較子會呼叫 CompareTo(String) 方法,反轉比較子的順序,讓字串排序高到低,而不是低到高。

此程式碼範例會建立並顯示恐龍名稱陣列, (索引鍵) 和整數陣列,代表 () 值 (每個恐龍的最大長度。 然後,陣列會排序並顯示數次:

注意

泛型方法的呼叫看起來與對非泛型方法的呼叫不同,因為 Visual Basic、C# 和 C++ 會從前兩個引數的類型推斷泛型型別參數的類型。 如果您使用Ildasm.exe (IL 反組譯程式) 來檢查Microsoft中繼語言 (MSIL) ,您可以看到正在呼叫泛型方法。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class ReverseComparer: IComparer<String^>
{
public:
    virtual int Compare(String^ x, String^ y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y->CompareTo(x);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus", 
            "Chasmosaurus", 
            "Coelophysis", 
            "Mamenchisaurus", 
            "Caudipteryx", 
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

    array<int>^ dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    ReverseComparer^ rc = gcnew ReverseComparer();

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus",
            "Chasmosaurus",
            "Coelophysis",
            "Mamenchisaurus",
            "Caudipteryx",
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

        int[] dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.",
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
open System
open System.Collections.Generic

type ReverseComparer() =
    interface IComparer<string> with
        member _.Compare(x, y) =
            y.CompareTo x

let dinosaurs =
    [| "Seismosaurus"
       "Chasmosaurus"
       "Coelophysis"
       "Mamenchisaurus"
       "Caudipteryx"
       "Cetiosaurus" |]

let dinosaurSizes = [| 40; 5; 3; 22; 1; 18 |]

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

let rc = ReverseComparer()

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

printfn "\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)"
Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

printfn ""
for i = 0 to dinosaurs.Length - 1 do
    printfn $"{dinosaurs[i]}: up to {dinosaurSizes[i]} meters long."

// This code example produces the following output:
//
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)
//    
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)
//    
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)
//    
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    
//    Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)
//    
//    Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
//    Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
//    Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
//    Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
//    Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
//    Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class ReverseComparer
    Implements IComparer(Of String)

    Public Function Compare(ByVal x As String, _
        ByVal y As String) As Integer _
        Implements IComparer(Of String).Compare

        ' Compare y and x in reverse order.
        Return y.CompareTo(x)

    End Function
End Class

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Seismosaurus", _
            "Chasmosaurus", _
            "Coelophysis", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Caudipteryx", _
            "Cetiosaurus"  }

        Dim dinosaurSizes() As Integer = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Dim rc As New ReverseComparer()

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)
'
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

備註

中的每個 keysArray 索引鍵都有 中的 itemsArray 對應專案。 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,中的 itemsArray 對應專案會同樣地重新置放。 因此,會 itemsArray 根據 中 keysArray 對應索引鍵的相片順序排序 。

如果 comparernull ,則 keysArray 中的指定專案範圍內每個索引鍵都必須實 IComparable<T> 作泛型介面,才能與其他每個索引鍵進行比較。

如果專案超過索引鍵,您可以排序,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。 如果索引鍵超過專案,則無法排序;這樣做會擲回 ArgumentException

如果排序未順利完成,則結果為未定義。

這個方法會使用 introspective sort (introsort) 演算法,如下所示:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於 16 個專案,則會使用 插入排序 演算法。

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中 N 是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用 堆積演算法

  • 否則,它會使用 Quicksort 演算法。

此實作會執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。 相反地,穩定排序會保留相等的專案順序。

這個方法是 O (記錄 n) n 作業,其中 nlength

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和較舊版本只使用 Quicksort 演算法。 Quicksort 會識別某些情況下不正確比較子,其中排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並將例外狀況擲 ArgumentException 回給呼叫端。 從 .NET Framework 4.5 開始,先前擲回的排序作業可能不會擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況,因為插入排序和堆積演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。 在大部分的情況下,這適用于小於或等於 16 個元素的陣列。

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