Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables 方法

定義

擷取所有環境變數名稱及它們的值。

多載

GetEnvironmentVariables()

從目前的處理序中擷取所有環境變數名稱及它們的值。

GetEnvironmentVariables(EnvironmentVariableTarget)

從目前的處理程序或是目前使用者或本機電腦的 Windows 作業系統登錄機碼中,擷取所有環境變數名稱和它們的值。

GetEnvironmentVariables()

從目前的處理序中擷取所有環境變數名稱及它們的值。

public:
 static System::Collections::IDictionary ^ GetEnvironmentVariables();
public static System.Collections.IDictionary GetEnvironmentVariables ();
static member GetEnvironmentVariables : unit -> System.Collections.IDictionary
Public Shared Function GetEnvironmentVariables () As IDictionary

傳回

IDictionary

包含所有環境變數名稱及其值的字典;如果找不到環境變數,則為空的字典。

例外狀況

呼叫端沒有執行這項作業的必要權限。

緩衝區記憶體不足。

範例

下列範例示範 GetEnvironmentVariables 方法。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

int main()
{
   Console::WriteLine( "GetEnvironmentVariables: " );
   for each (DictionaryEntry^ de in Environment::GetEnvironmentVariables())
      Console::WriteLine( " {0} = {1}", de->Key, de->Value );
}
// Output from the example is not shown, since it is:
//    Lengthy.
//    Specific to the machine on which the example is run.
//    May reveal information that should remain secure.
// Sample for the Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables method
using System;
using System.Collections;

class Sample
{
    public static void Main()
    {
       Console.WriteLine();
       Console.WriteLine("GetEnvironmentVariables: ");
       foreach (DictionaryEntry de in Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables())
           Console.WriteLine("  {0} = {1}", de.Key, de.Value);
    }
}
// Output from the example is not shown, since it is:
//    Lengthy.
//    Specific to the machine on which the example is run.
//    May reveal information that should remain secure.
// Sample for the Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables method
open System
open System.Collections

printfn "\nGetEnvironmentVariables: "
for de in Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables() do
    let de = de :?> DictionaryEntry
    printfn $"  {de.Key} = {de.Value}"
// Output from the example is not shown, since it is:
//    Lengthy.
//    Specific to the machine on which the example is run.
//    May reveal information that should remain secure.
' Sample for the Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables method
Imports System.Collections

Class Sample
   Public Shared Sub Main()
      Console.WriteLine("GetEnvironmentVariables: ")
      For Each de As DictionaryEntry In Environment.GetEnvironmentVariables()
         Console.WriteLine("  {0} = {1}", de.Key, de.Value)
      Next 
   End Sub 
End Class 
' Output from the example is not shown, since it is:
'    Lengthy.
'    Specific to the machine on which the example is run.
'    May reveal information that should remain secure.

備註

環境變數的名稱和值會儲存為傳 IDictionary 回的 中索引鍵/值組。

在Windows系統上

在Windows系統上, GetEnvironmentVariables 此方法會傳回下列環境變數:

在 macOS 和 Linux 系統上

在 MacOS 和 Linux 上, GetEnvironmentVariables 此方法會擷取繼承自啟動 dotnet 進程或進程本身範圍內 dotnet 定義之父進程之所有環境變數的名稱和值。 dotnet一旦程式結束,這些後者的環境變數就會停止存在。

在 Unix 系統上執行的 .NET 不支援每部電腦或每個使用者環境變數。

另請參閱

適用於

GetEnvironmentVariables(EnvironmentVariableTarget)

從目前的處理程序或是目前使用者或本機電腦的 Windows 作業系統登錄機碼中,擷取所有環境變數名稱和它們的值。

public:
 static System::Collections::IDictionary ^ GetEnvironmentVariables(EnvironmentVariableTarget target);
public static System.Collections.IDictionary GetEnvironmentVariables (EnvironmentVariableTarget target);
static member GetEnvironmentVariables : EnvironmentVariableTarget -> System.Collections.IDictionary
Public Shared Function GetEnvironmentVariables (target As EnvironmentVariableTarget) As IDictionary

參數

target
EnvironmentVariableTarget

其中一個 EnvironmentVariableTarget 值。 只有在 Process 以 Unix 為基礎的系統上執行的 .NET 才支援。

傳回

IDictionary

包含 target 參數指定之來源中所有環境變數名稱及其值的字典;如果找不到環境變數,則為空的字典。

例外狀況

呼叫端沒有針對 target 指定值執行這項作業的必要權限。

target 含有無效的值。

範例

下列範例會建立 EnvironmentVariableTarget.ProcessEnvironmentVariableTarget.UserMachine 目標的環境變數,檢查作業系統登錄是否包含使用者和電腦環境變數,然後刪除環境變數。 由於 Unix 系統上的 .NET 不支援每一使用者和每部機器環境變數,因此只有 SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String)SetEnvironmentVariable(String, String, EnvironmentVariableTarget) 的值 EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process 才能成功將環境變數儲存至進程環境區塊。

using System;
using System.Collections;
using Microsoft.Win32;

class Sample
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        // Environment variable names for default, process, user, and machine targets.
        string defaultEnvVar = nameof(defaultEnvVar);
        string processEnvVar = nameof(processEnvVar);
        string userEnvVar = nameof(userEnvVar);
        string machineEnvVar = nameof(machineEnvVar);

        string dft = nameof(dft);
        string process = nameof(process);
        string user = nameof(user);
        string machine = nameof(machine);

        // Set the environment variable for each target.
        Console.WriteLine("Setting environment variables for each target...\n");
        // The default target (the current process).
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(defaultEnvVar, dft);
        // The current process.
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(processEnvVar, process,
                                           EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process);
        // The current user.
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(userEnvVar, user,
                                           EnvironmentVariableTarget.User);
        // The local machine.
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(machineEnvVar, machine,
                                           EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine);

        // Define an array of environment variables.
        string[] envVars = { defaultEnvVar,processEnvVar, userEnvVar, machineEnvVar };

        // Try to get the environment variables from each target.
        // The default (no specified target).
        Console.WriteLine("Retrieving environment variables from the default target:");
        foreach (var envVar in envVars)
        {
          var value = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envVar) ?? "(none)";
          Console.WriteLine($"   {envVar}: {value}");
        }
        // The process block.
        Console.WriteLine("\nRetrieving environment variables from the Process target:");
        foreach (var envVar in envVars)
        {
          var value = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envVar, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process) ?? "(none)";
          Console.WriteLine($"   {envVar}: {value}");
        }
        // The user block.
        Console.WriteLine("\nRetrieving environment variables from the User target:");
        foreach (var envVar in envVars)
        {
          var value = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envVar, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User) ?? "(none)";
          Console.WriteLine($"   {envVar}: {value}");
        }
        // The machine block.
        Console.WriteLine("\nRetrieving environment variables from the Machine target:");
        foreach (var envVar in envVars)
        {
          var value = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envVar, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine) ?? "(none)";
          Console.WriteLine($"   {envVar}: {value}");
        }

        // Delete the environment variable for each target.
        Console.WriteLine("\nDeleting environment variables for each target...\n");
        // The default target (the current process).
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(defaultEnvVar, null);
        // The current process.
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(processEnvVar, null,
                                           EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process);
        // The current user.
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(userEnvVar, null,
                                           EnvironmentVariableTarget.User);
        // The local machine.
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(machineEnvVar, null,
                                           EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine);
    }
}
// The example displays the following output if run on a Windows system:
//      Setting environment variables for each target...
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the default target:
//        defaultEnvVar: dft
//        processEnvVar: process
//        userEnvVar: user
//        machineEnvVar: (none)
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the Process target:
//        defaultEnvVar: dft
//        processEnvVar: process
//        userEnvVar: user
//        machineEnvVar: (none)
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the User target:
//        defaultEnvVar: (none)
//        processEnvVar: (none)
//        userEnvVar: user
//        machineEnvVar: (none)
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the Machine target:
//        defaultEnvVar: (none)
//        processEnvVar: (none)
//        userEnvVar: (none)
//        machineEnvVar: machine
//
//      Deleting environment variables for each target...
//
// The example displays the following output if run on a Unix-based system:
//
//      Setting environment variables for each target...
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the default target:
//        defaultEnvVar: dft
//        processEnvVar: process
//        userEnvVar: (none)
//        machineEnvVar: (none)
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the Process target:
//        defaultEnvVar: dft
//        processEnvVar: process
//        userEnvVar: (none)
//        machineEnvVar: (none)
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the User target:
//        defaultEnvVar: (none)
//        processEnvVar: (none)
//        userEnvVar: (none)
//        machineEnvVar: (none)
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the Machine target:
//        defaultEnvVar: (none)
//        processEnvVar: (none)
//        userEnvVar: (none)
//        machineEnvVar: (none)
//
//      Deleting environment variables for each target...
module Sample

open System

// Environment variable names for default, process, user, and machine targets.
let rec defaultEnvVar = nameof defaultEnvVar
let rec processEnvVar = nameof processEnvVar
let rec userEnvVar = nameof userEnvVar
let rec machineEnvVar = nameof machineEnvVar

let rec dft = nameof dft
let rec proc = nameof proc
let rec user = nameof user
let rec machine = nameof machine

// Set the environment variable for each target.
printfn "Setting environment variables for each target...\n"
// The default target (the current process).
Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(defaultEnvVar, dft)
// The current process.
Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(processEnvVar, proc, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process)
// The current user.
Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(userEnvVar, user, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User)
// The local machine.
Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(machineEnvVar, machine, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine)

// Define a list of environment variables.
let envVars = [ defaultEnvVar; processEnvVar; userEnvVar; machineEnvVar ]

// Try to get the environment variables from each target.
// The default (no specified target).
printfn "Retrieving environment variables from the default target:"
for envVar in envVars do
    let value = 
        match Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable envVar with
        | null -> "(none)"
        | v -> v
    printfn $"   {envVar}: {value}"

// The process block.
printfn "\nRetrieving environment variables from the Process target:"
for envVar in envVars do
    let value = 
        match Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envVar, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process) with
        | null -> "(none)"
        | v -> v
    printfn $"   {envVar}: {value}"

// The user block.
printfn "\nRetrieving environment variables from the User target:"
for envVar in envVars do
    let value = 
        match Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envVar, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User) with
        | null -> "(none)"
        | v -> v
    printfn $"   {envVar}: {value}"

// The machine block.
printfn "\nRetrieving environment variables from the Machine target:"
for envVar in envVars do
    let value = 
        match Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envVar, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine) with
        | null -> "(none)"
        | v -> v
    printfn $"   {envVar}: {value}"

// Delete the environment variable for each target.
printfn "\nDeleting environment variables for each target...\n"
// The default target (the current process).
Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(defaultEnvVar, null)
// The current process.
Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(processEnvVar, null, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process)
// The current user.
Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(userEnvVar, null, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User)
// The local machine.
Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(machineEnvVar, null, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine)

// The example displays the following output if run on a Windows system:
//      Setting environment variables for each target...
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the default target:
//        defaultEnvVar: dft
//        processEnvVar: process
//        userEnvVar: user
//        machineEnvVar: (none)
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the Process target:
//        defaultEnvVar: dft
//        processEnvVar: process
//        userEnvVar: user
//        machineEnvVar: (none)
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the User target:
//        defaultEnvVar: (none)
//        processEnvVar: (none)
//        userEnvVar: user
//        machineEnvVar: (none)
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the Machine target:
//        defaultEnvVar: (none)
//        processEnvVar: (none)
//        userEnvVar: (none)
//        machineEnvVar: machine
//
//      Deleting environment variables for each target...
//
// The example displays the following output if run on a Unix-based system:
//
//      Setting environment variables for each target...
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the default target:
//        defaultEnvVar: dft
//        processEnvVar: process
//        userEnvVar: (none)
//        machineEnvVar: (none)
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the Process target:
//        defaultEnvVar: dft
//        processEnvVar: process
//        userEnvVar: (none)
//        machineEnvVar: (none)
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the User target:
//        defaultEnvVar: (none)
//        processEnvVar: (none)
//        userEnvVar: (none)
//        machineEnvVar: (none)
//
//      Retrieving environment variables from the Machine target:
//        defaultEnvVar: (none)
//        processEnvVar: (none)
//        userEnvVar: (none)
//        machineEnvVar: (none)
//
//      Deleting environment variables for each target...
Imports System.Collections
Imports Microsoft.Win32

Module Sample 
    Public Sub Main() 
        ' Environment variable names for default, process, user, and machine targets.
        Dim defaultEnvVar As String = NameOf(defaultEnvVar)
        Dim processEnvVar As String = NameOf(processEnvVar)
        Dim userEnvVar As String = NameOf(userEnvVar)
        Dim machineEnvVar As String = NameOf(machineEnvVar)

        Dim dft As String = NameOf(dft)
        Dim process As String = NameOf(process)
        Dim user As String = NameOf(user)
        Dim machine As String = NameOf(machine)

        ' Set the environment variable for each target.
        Console.WriteLine("Setting environment variables for each target...")
        ' The default target (the current process).
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(defaultEnvVar, dft)
        ' The current process.
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(processEnvVar, process, 
                                           EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process)
        ' The current user.
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(userEnvVar, user, 
                                           EnvironmentVariableTarget.User)
        ' The local machine.
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(machineEnvVar, machine, 
                                           EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine)
        Console.WriteLine()

        ' Define an array of environment variables.
        Dim envVars As String() = { defaultEnvVar, processEnvVar, userEnvVar, machineEnvVar }
        
        ' Try to get the environment variables from each target.
        ' The default (no specified target).
        Console.WriteLine("Retrieving environment variables from the default target:")
        For Each envVar in envVars
          Dim value = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envVar)
          Console.WriteLine($"   {envVar}: {If(value IsNot Nothing, value, "(none)")}")
        Next
        Console.WriteLine()
        ' The process block.
        Console.WriteLine("Retrieving environment variables from the Process target:")
        For Each envVar in envVars
          Dim value = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envVar, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process)
          Console.WriteLine($"   {envVar}: {If(value IsNot Nothing, value, "(none)")}")
        Next
        Console.WriteLine()
        ' The user block.
        Console.WriteLine("Retrieving environment variables from the User target:")
        For Each envVar in envVars
          Dim value = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envVar, EnvironmentVariableTarget.User)
          Console.WriteLine($"   {envVar}: {value}")
        Next
        Console.WriteLine()
        ' The machine block.
        Console.WriteLine("Retrieving environment variables from the Machine target:")
        For Each envVar in envVars
          Dim value = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(envVar, EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine)
          Console.WriteLine($"   {envVar}: {value}")
        Next
        Console.WriteLine()

        ' Delete the environment variable for each target.
        Console.WriteLine("Deleting environment variables for each target...")
        ' The default target (the current process).
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(defaultEnvVar, Nothing)
        ' The current process.
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(processEnvVar, Nothing, 
                                           EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process)
        ' The current user.
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(userEnvVar, Nothing, 
                                           EnvironmentVariableTarget.User)
        ' The local machine.
        Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable(machineEnvVar, Nothing, 
                                           EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine)
    End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output if run on a Windows system:
'      Setting environment variables for each target...
'
'      Retrieving environment variables from the default target:
'        defaultEnvVar: dft
'        processEnvVar: process
'        userEnvVar: user
'        machineEnvVar: (none)
'
'      Retrieving environment variables from the Process target:
'        defaultEnvVar: dft
'        processEnvVar: process
'        userEnvVar: user
'        machineEnvVar: (none)
'
'      Retrieving environment variables from the User target:
'        defaultEnvVar: (none)
'        processEnvVar: (none)
'        userEnvVar: user
'        machineEnvVar: (none)
'
'      Retrieving environment variables from the Machine target:
'        defaultEnvVar: (none)
'        processEnvVar: (none)
'        userEnvVar: (none)
'        machineEnvVar: machine
'
'      Deleting environment variables for each target...
'
' The example displays the following output if run on a Unix-based system:
'
'      Setting environment variables for each target...
'
'      Retrieving environment variables from the default target:
'        defaultEnvVar: dft
'        processEnvVar: process
'        userEnvVar: (none)
'        machineEnvVar: (none)
'
'      Retrieving environment variables from the Process target:
'        defaultEnvVar: dft
'        processEnvVar: process
'        userEnvVar: (none)
'        machineEnvVar: (none)
'
'      Retrieving environment variables from the User target:
'        defaultEnvVar: (none)
'        processEnvVar: (none)
'        userEnvVar: (none)
'        machineEnvVar: (none)
'
'      Retrieving environment variables from the Machine target:
'        defaultEnvVar: (none)
'        processEnvVar: (none)
'        userEnvVar: (none)
'        machineEnvVar: (none)
'
'      Deleting environment variables for each target...

備註

環境變數的名稱和值會儲存為傳 IDictionary 回物件的索引鍵/值組。

在Windows系統上

在Windows系統上, target 參數會指定來源是目前進程、目前使用者的登錄機碼,還是本機電腦的登錄機碼。

在 macOS 和 Linux 系統上

在 macOS 和 Linux 上,僅 target 支援 的值 EnvironmentVariableTarget.Process 。 每個進程環境變數會繼承自父進程 (通常是用來啟動 dotnet 進程的殼層) ,或是在進程本身的範圍內 dotnet 定義。 一旦 dotnet 進程結束,這些後者的環境變數就會停止存在。

不支援每部電腦和每個使用者環境變數。 targetEnvironmentVariableTarget.User 的值 EnvironmentVariableTarget.Machine 會傳回空陣列。

另請參閱

適用於