IFormattable 介面

定義

提供將物件的值格式化成以字串表示的功能。

public interface class IFormattable
public interface IFormattable
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]
public interface IFormattable
type IFormattable = interface
[<System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)>]
type IFormattable = interface
Public Interface IFormattable
衍生
屬性

範例

下列範例定義一個實作 Temperature 介面的 IFormattable 類別。 類別支援四種格式規範:「G」 和 「C」,表示溫度以攝氏顯示;「F」,表示溫度要顯示在華氏中;和 「K」,表示溫度會顯示在 Kelvin 中。 此外,實作 IFormattable.ToString 也可以處理為 null 或空白的格式字串。 類別所 Temperature 定義的其他兩 ToString 個方法只會包裝對 實作的 IFormattable.ToString 呼叫。

using System;
using System.Globalization;

public class Temperature : IFormattable
{
   private decimal temp;

   public Temperature(decimal temperature)
   {
      if (temperature < -273.15m)
        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String.Format("{0} is less than absolute zero.",
                                              temperature));
      this.temp = temperature;
   }

   public decimal Celsius
   {
      get { return temp; }
   }

   public decimal Fahrenheit
   {
      get { return temp * 9 / 5 + 32; }
   }

   public decimal Kelvin
   {
      get { return temp + 273.15m; }
   }

   public override string ToString()
   {
      return this.ToString("G", CultureInfo.CurrentCulture);
   }

   public string ToString(string format)
   {
      return this.ToString(format, CultureInfo.CurrentCulture);
   }

   public string ToString(string format, IFormatProvider provider)
   {
      if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(format)) format = "G";
      if (provider == null) provider = CultureInfo.CurrentCulture;

      switch (format.ToUpperInvariant())
      {
         case "G":
         case "C":
            return temp.ToString("F2", provider) + " °C";
         case "F":
            return Fahrenheit.ToString("F2", provider) + " °F";
         case "K":
            return Kelvin.ToString("F2", provider) + " K";
         default:
            throw new FormatException(String.Format("The {0} format string is not supported.", format));
      }
   }
}
open System
open System.Globalization

type Temperature(temperature: decimal) =
    do 
        if temperature < -273.15M then
            raise (ArgumentOutOfRangeException $"{temperature} is less than absolute zero.")

    member _.Celsius =
        temperature

    member _.Fahrenheit =
        temperature * 9M / 5M + 32M

    member _.Kelvin =
        temperature + 273.15m

    override this.ToString() =
        this.ToString("G", CultureInfo.CurrentCulture)

    member this.ToString(format) =
        this.ToString(format, CultureInfo.CurrentCulture)

    member this.ToString(format, provider: IFormatProvider) =
        let format =
            if String.IsNullOrEmpty format then "G"
            else format

        let provider =
            if isNull provider then 
                CultureInfo.CurrentCulture :> IFormatProvider
            else provider

        match format.ToUpperInvariant() with
        | "G" | "C" ->
            temperature.ToString("F2", provider) + " °C"
        | "F" ->
            this.Fahrenheit.ToString("F2", provider) + " °F"
        | "K" ->
            this.Kelvin.ToString("F2", provider) + " K"
        | _ ->
            raise (FormatException $"The {format} format string is not supported.")

    interface IFormattable with
        member this.ToString(format, provider) = this.ToString(format, provider)
Imports System.Globalization

Public Class Temperature : Implements IFormattable
   Private temp As Decimal
   
   Public Sub New(temperature As Decimal)
      If temperature < -273.15 Then _ 
        Throw New ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String.Format("{0} is less than absolute zero.", _
                                              temperature))
      Me.temp = temperature
   End Sub
   
   Public ReadOnly Property Celsius As Decimal
      Get
         Return temp
      End Get
   End Property
   
   Public ReadOnly Property Fahrenheit As Decimal
      Get
         Return temp * 9 / 5 + 32
      End Get
   End Property
   
   Public ReadOnly Property Kelvin As Decimal
      Get
         Return temp + 273.15d
      End Get
   End Property

   Public Overrides Function ToString() As String
      Return Me.ToString("G", CultureInfo.CurrentCulture)
   End Function
      
   Public Overloads Function ToString(fmt As String) As String
      Return Me.ToString(fmt, CultureInfo.CurrentCulture)
   End Function
   
   Public Overloads Function ToString(fmt As String, provider As IFormatProvider) _
                   As String _
                   Implements IFormattable.ToString
      If String.IsNullOrEmpty(fmt) Then fmt = "G"
      If provider Is Nothing Then provider = CultureInfo.CurrentCulture
      
      Select Case fmt.ToUpperInvariant()
         Case "G", "C"
            Return temp.ToString("F2", provider) + " °C" 
         Case "F"
            Return Fahrenheit.ToString("F2", provider) + " °F"
         Case "K"
            Return Kelvin.ToString("F2", provider) + " K"
         Case Else
            Throw New FormatException(String.Format("The {0} format string is not supported.", fmt))
      End Select
   End Function
End Class

下列範例接著會直接或使用複合格式字串呼叫 IFormattable.ToString 實作。

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      // Use composite formatting with format string in the format item.
      Temperature temp1 = new Temperature(0);
      Console.WriteLine("{0:C} (Celsius) = {0:K} (Kelvin) = {0:F} (Fahrenheit)\n", temp1);

      // Use composite formatting with a format provider.
      temp1 = new Temperature(-40);
      Console.WriteLine(String.Format(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture, "{0:C} (Celsius) = {0:K} (Kelvin) = {0:F} (Fahrenheit)", temp1));
      Console.WriteLine(String.Format(new CultureInfo("fr-FR"), "{0:C} (Celsius) = {0:K} (Kelvin) = {0:F} (Fahrenheit)\n", temp1));

      // Call ToString method with format string.
      temp1 = new Temperature(32);
      Console.WriteLine("{0} (Celsius) = {1} (Kelvin) = {2} (Fahrenheit)\n",
                        temp1.ToString("C"), temp1.ToString("K"), temp1.ToString("F"));

      // Call ToString with format string and format provider
      temp1 = new Temperature(100)      ;
      NumberFormatInfo current = NumberFormatInfo.CurrentInfo;
      CultureInfo nl = new CultureInfo("nl-NL");
      Console.WriteLine("{0} (Celsius) = {1} (Kelvin) = {2} (Fahrenheit)",
                        temp1.ToString("C", current), temp1.ToString("K", current), temp1.ToString("F", current));
      Console.WriteLine("{0} (Celsius) = {1} (Kelvin) = {2} (Fahrenheit)",
                        temp1.ToString("C", nl), temp1.ToString("K", nl), temp1.ToString("F", nl));
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    0.00 °C (Celsius) = 273.15 K (Kelvin) = 32.00 °F (Fahrenheit)
//
//    -40.00 °C (Celsius) = 233.15 K (Kelvin) = -40.00 °F (Fahrenheit)
//    -40,00 °C (Celsius) = 233,15 K (Kelvin) = -40,00 °F (Fahrenheit)
//
//    32.00 °C (Celsius) = 305.15 K (Kelvin) = 89.60 °F (Fahrenheit)
//
//    100.00 °C (Celsius) = 373.15 K (Kelvin) = 212.00 °F (Fahrenheit)
//    100,00 °C (Celsius) = 373,15 K (Kelvin) = 212,00 °F (Fahrenheit)
open System
open System.Globalization

[<EntryPoint>]
let main _ =
    // Use composite formatting with format string in the format item.
    let temp1 = Temperature 0
    Console.WriteLine("{0:C} (Celsius) = {0:K} (Kelvin) = {0:F} (Fahrenheit)\n", temp1)

    // Use composite formatting with a format provider.
    let temp1 = Temperature -40
    String.Format(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture, "{0:C} (Celsius) = {0:K} (Kelvin) = {0:F} (Fahrenheit)", temp1)
    |> printfn "%s"
    String.Format(CultureInfo "fr-FR", "{0:C} (Celsius) = {0:K} (Kelvin) = {0:F} (Fahrenheit)\n", temp1)
    |> printfn "%s"

    // Call ToString method with format string.
    let temp1 = Temperature 32
    Console.WriteLine("{0} (Celsius) = {1} (Kelvin) = {2} (Fahrenheit)\n",
                      temp1.ToString "C", temp1.ToString "K", temp1.ToString "F")

    // Call ToString with format string and format provider
    let temp1 = Temperature 100      
    let current = NumberFormatInfo.CurrentInfo
    let nl = CultureInfo "nl-NL"
    Console.WriteLine("{0} (Celsius) = {1} (Kelvin) = {2} (Fahrenheit)",
                      temp1.ToString("C", current), temp1.ToString("K", current), temp1.ToString("F", current))
    Console.WriteLine("{0} (Celsius) = {1} (Kelvin) = {2} (Fahrenheit)",
                      temp1.ToString("C", nl), temp1.ToString("K", nl), temp1.ToString("F", nl))
    0

// The example displays the following output:
//    0.00 °C (Celsius) = 273.15 K (Kelvin) = 32.00 °F (Fahrenheit)
//
//    -40.00 °C (Celsius) = 233.15 K (Kelvin) = -40.00 °F (Fahrenheit)
//    -40,00 °C (Celsius) = 233,15 K (Kelvin) = -40,00 °F (Fahrenheit)
//
//    32.00 °C (Celsius) = 305.15 K (Kelvin) = 89.60 °F (Fahrenheit)
//
//    100.00 °C (Celsius) = 373.15 K (Kelvin) = 212.00 °F (Fahrenheit)
//    100,00 °C (Celsius) = 373,15 K (Kelvin) = 212,00 °F (Fahrenheit)
Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      ' Use composite formatting with format string in the format item.
      Dim temp1 As New Temperature(0)
      Console.WriteLine("{0:C} (Celsius) = {0:K} (Kelvin) = {0:F} (Fahrenheit)", temp1)
      Console.WriteLine()
      
      ' Use composite formatting with a format provider.
      temp1 = New Temperature(-40)
      Console.WriteLine(String.Format(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture, "{0:C} (Celsius) = {0:K} (Kelvin) = {0:F} (Fahrenheit)", temp1))
      Console.WriteLine(String.Format(New CultureInfo("fr-FR"), "{0:C} (Celsius) = {0:K} (Kelvin) = {0:F} (Fahrenheit)", temp1))
      Console.WriteLine()
      
      ' Call ToString method with format string.
      temp1 = New Temperature(32)
      Console.WriteLine("{0} (Celsius) = {1} (Kelvin) = {2} (Fahrenheit)", _
                        temp1.ToString("C"), temp1.ToString("K"), temp1.ToString("F"))
      Console.WriteLine()

      ' Call ToString with format string and format provider
      temp1 = New Temperature(100)      
      Dim current As NumberFormatInfo = NumberFormatInfo.CurrentInfo
      Dim nl As New CultureInfo("nl-NL") 
      Console.WriteLine("{0} (Celsius) = {1} (Kelvin) = {2} (Fahrenheit)", _
                        temp1.ToString("C", current), temp1.ToString("K", current), temp1.ToString("F", current))
      Console.WriteLine("{0} (Celsius) = {1} (Kelvin) = {2} (Fahrenheit)", _
                        temp1.ToString("C", nl), temp1.ToString("K", nl), temp1.ToString("F", nl))
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'       0.00 °C (Celsius) = 273.15 K (Kelvin) = 32.00 °F (Fahrenheit)
'       
'       -40.00 °C (Celsius) = 233.15 K (Kelvin) = -40.00 °F (Fahrenheit)
'       -40,00 °C (Celsius) = 233,15 K (Kelvin) = -40,00 °F (Fahrenheit)
'       
'       32.00 °C (Celsius) = 305.15 K (Kelvin) = 89.60 °F (Fahrenheit)
'       
'       100.00 °C (Celsius) = 373.15 K (Kelvin) = 212.00 °F (Fahrenheit)
'       100,00 °C (Celsius) = 373,15 K (Kelvin) = 212,00 °F (Fahrenheit)

備註

介面 IFormattable 會根據格式字串和格式提供者,將物件轉換為其字串表示。

格式字串通常會定義物件的一般外觀。 例如,.NET Framework支援下列專案:

您也可以定義自己的格式字串,以支援應用程式定義類型的格式設定。

格式提供者會傳回格式物件,該物件通常會定義用來將物件轉換成其字串表示的符號。 例如,當您將數位轉換成貨幣值時,格式提供者會定義出現在結果字串中的貨幣符號。 .NET Framework定義三種格式提供者:

此外,您可以定義自己的自訂格式提供者,以提供格式化中使用的特定文化特性、專業特定或產業特定資訊。 如需使用自訂格式提供者實作自訂格式的詳細資訊,請參閱 ICustomFormatter

介面 IFormattable 會定義單一方法 ToString ,以提供實作型別的格式服務。 ToString您可以直接呼叫 方法。 此外,它會由 Convert.ToString(Object)Convert.ToString(Object, IFormatProvider) 方法自動呼叫,以及使用.NET Framework中複合格式功能的方法呼叫。 這類方法包括 Console.WriteLine(String, Object)String.FormatStringBuilder.AppendFormat(String, Object) 等等。 系統會 ToString 針對方法格式字串中的每個格式專案呼叫 方法。

介面 IFormattable 是由基底資料類型所實作。

給實施者的注意事項

需要比 提供更充分控制字元串 ToString() 格式設定的類別應該實 IFormattable 作 。

實作 的 IFormattable 類別必須支援 「G」 (一般) 格式規範。 除了 「G」 規範之外,類別還可以定義它支援的格式規範清單。 此外,類別必須準備好處理為 的格式規範 null 。 如需格式化和格式化程式碼的詳細資訊,請參閱 格式化類型

方法

ToString(String, IFormatProvider)

使用指定的格式,格式化目前執行個體的值。

適用於

另請參閱