@Yusuf Oezeren, Thanks for posting in Q&A. Device Credential is only supported for Microsoft Intune enrollment in scenarios with Co-management or Azure Virtual Desktop multi-session host pools because the Intune subscription is user centric. User credentials are supported for Azure Virtual Desktop personal host pools.
Please confirm if the device is Azure Virtual Desktop multi-session host. If not, device credential is not supported. Hope the information can help.
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