Deploy serverless Java apps with Quarkus on Azure Functions

In this article, you'll develop, build, and deploy a serverless Java app to Azure Functions by using Quarkus. This article uses Quarkus Funqy and its built-in support for the Azure Functions HTTP trigger for Java. Using Quarkus with Azure Functions gives you the power of the Quarkus programming model with the scale and flexibility of Azure Functions. When you finish, you'll run serverless Quarkus applications on Azure Functions and continue to monitor your app on Azure.


Create the app project

Use the following command to clone the sample Java project for this article. The sample is on GitHub.

git clone
cd quarkus-azure
git checkout 2023-01-10
cd functions-quarkus

If you see a message about being in detached HEAD state, this message is safe to ignore. Because this article does not require any commits, detached HEAD state is appropriate.

Explore the sample function. Open the functions-quarkus/src/main/java/io/quarkus/ file.

Run the following command. The @Funq annotation makes your method (in this case, funqyHello) a serverless function.

public String funqyHello() {
    return "hello funqy";

Azure Functions Java has its own set of Azure-specific annotations, but these annotations aren't necessary when you're using Quarkus on Azure Functions in a simple capacity as we're doing here. For more information about Azure Functions Java annotations, see the Azure Functions Java developer guide.

Unless you specify otherwise, the function's name is the same as the method name. You can also use the following command to define the function name with a parameter to the annotation:

public String funqyHello() {
    return "hello funqy";

The name is important. It becomes a part of the REST URI to invoke the function, as shown later in the article.

Test the function locally

Use mvn to run Quarkus dev mode on your local terminal. Running Quarkus in this way enables live reload with background compilation. When you modify your Java files and/or your resource files and refresh your browser, these changes will automatically take effect.

A browser refresh triggers a scan of the workspace. If the scan detects any changes, the Java files are recompiled and the application is redeployed. Your redeployed application services the request. If there are any problems with compilation or deployment, an error page will let you know.

In the following procedure, replace yourResourceGroupName with a resource group name. Function app names must be globally unique across all of Azure. Resource group names must be globally unique within a subscription. This article achieves the necessary uniqueness by prepending the resource group name to the function name. Consider prepending a unique identifier to any names you create that must be unique. A useful technique is to use your initials followed by today's date in mmdd format.

The resource group is not necessary for this part of the instructions, but it's required later. For simplicity, the Maven project requires you to define the property.

  1. Invoke Quarkus dev mode:

    cd functions-azure
    mvn -DskipTests -DresourceGroup=<yourResourceGroupName> quarkus:dev

    The output should look like this:

    --/ __ \/ / / / _ | / _ \/ //_/ / / / __/ 
    -/ /_/ / /_/ / __ |/ , _/ ,< / /_/ /\ \   
    --\___\_\____/_/ |_/_/|_/_/|_|\____/___/   
    INFO  [io.quarkus] (Quarkus Main Thread) quarkus-azure-function 1.0-SNAPSHOT on JVM (powered by Quarkus xx.xx.xx.) started in 1.290s. Listening on: http://localhost:8080
    INFO  [io.quarkus] (Quarkus Main Thread) Profile dev activated. Live Coding activated.
    INFO  [io.quarkus] (Quarkus Main Thread) Installed features: [cdi, funqy-http, smallrye-context-propagation, vertx]
    Tests paused
    Press [r] to resume testing, [o] Toggle test output, [:] for the terminal, [h] for more options>
  2. Access the function by using the CURL command on your local terminal:

    curl localhost:8080/api/funqyHello

    The output should look like this:

    "hello funqy"

Add dependency injection to the function

The open-standard technology Jakarta EE Contexts and Dependency Injection (CDI) provides dependency injection in Quarkus. For a high-level overview of injection in general, and CDI specifically, see the Jakarta EE tutorial.

  1. Add a new function that uses dependency injection.

    Create a file in the functions-quarkus/src/main/java/io/quarkus directory. Use the following code as the source code of the file:

    package io.quarkus;
    import javax.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;
    public class GreetingService {
        public String greeting(String name) {
            return "Welcome to build Serverless Java with Quarkus on Azure Functions, " + name;

    Save the file.

    GreetingService is an injectable bean that implements a greeting() method. The method returns a Welcome... string message with a name parameter.

  2. Open the existing functions-quarkus/src/main/java/io/quarkus/ file. Replace the class with the following code to add a new gService field and the greeting method:

    package io.quarkus;
    import javax.inject.Inject;
    import io.quarkus.funqy.Funq;
    public class GreetingFunction {
        GreetingService gService;
        public String greeting(String name) {
            return gService.greeting(name);
        public String funqyHello() {
            return "hello funqy";

    Save the file.

  3. Access the new greeting function by using the curl command on your local terminal:

    curl -d '"Dan"' -X POST localhost:8080/api/greeting

    The output should look like this:

    "Welcome to build Serverless Java with Quarkus on Azure Functions, Dan"


    Live Coding (also called dev mode) allows you to run the app and make changes on the fly. Quarkus will automatically recompile and reload the app when changes are made. This is a powerful and efficient style of developing that you'll use throughout this article.

    Before you move forward to the next step, stop Quarkus dev mode by selecting Ctrl+C.

Deploy the app to Azure

  1. If you haven't already, sign in to your Azure subscription by using the following az login command and follow the on-screen directions:

    az login


    If multiple Azure tenants are associated with your Azure credentials, you must specify which tenant you want to sign in to. You can do this by using the --tenant option. For example: az login --tenant

    Continue the process in the web browser. If no web browser is available or if the web browser fails to open, use device code flow with az login --use-device-code.

    After you sign in successfully, the output on your local terminal should look similar to the following:

    xxxxxxx-xxxxx-xxxx-xxxxx-xxxxxxxxx 'Microsoft'
            "cloudName": "AzureCloud",
            "homeTenantId": "xxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxx",
            "id": "xxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxx",
            "isDefault": true,
            "managedByTenants": [],
            "name": "Contoso account services",
            "state": "Enabled",
            "tenantId": "xxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxx-xxxxxxxxxx",
            "user": {
            "name": "",
            "type": "user"
  2. Build and deploy the functions to Azure.

    The pom.xml file that you generated in the previous step uses azure-functions-maven-plugin. Running mvn install generates configuration files and a staging directory that azure-functions-maven-plugin requires. For yourResourceGroupName, use the value that you used previously.

    mvn clean install -DskipTests -DtenantId=<your tenantId from shown previously> -DresourceGroup=<yourResourceGroupName> azure-functions:deploy
  3. During deployment, sign in to Azure. The azure-functions-maven-plugin plug-in is configured to prompt for Azure sign-in each time the project is deployed. During the build, output similar to the following appears:

    [INFO] Auth type: DEVICE_CODE
    To sign in, use a web browser to open the page and enter the code AXCWTLGMP to authenticate.

    Do as the output says and authenticate to Azure by using the browser and the provided device code. Many other authentication and configuration options are available. The complete reference documentation for azure-functions-maven-plugin is available at Azure Functions: Configuration Details.

  4. After authentication, the build should continue and finish. Make sure that output includes BUILD SUCCESS near the end.

    Successfully deployed the artifact to

    You can also find the URL to trigger your function on Azure in the output log:

    [INFO] HTTP Trigger Urls:
    [INFO] 	 quarkus :{*path}

    It will take a while for the deployment to finish. In the meantime, let's explore Azure Functions in the Azure portal.

Access and monitor the serverless function on Azure

Sign in to the portal and ensure that you've selected the same tenant and subscription that you used in the Azure CLI.

  1. Type function app on the search bar at the top of the Azure portal and select the Enter key. Your function app should be deployed and show up with the name <yourResourceGroupName>-function-quarkus.

    Screenshot that shows the function app in the portal.

  2. Select the function app to show detailed information, such as Location, Subscription, URL, Metrics, and App Service Plan. Then, select the URL value.

    Screenshot that shows a URL and other function app details.

  3. Confirm that the welcome page says your function app is "up and running."

    Screenshot that shows the welcome page for a function app.

  4. Invoke the greeting function by using the following curl command on your local terminal.


    Replace YOUR_HTTP_TRIGGER_URL with your own function URL that you find in the Azure portal or output.

    curl -d '"Dan on Azure"' -X POST https://YOUR_HTTP_TRIGGER_URL/api/greeting

    The output should look similar to the following:

    "Welcome to build Serverless Java with Quarkus on Azure Functions, Dan on Azure"

    You can also access the other function (funqyHello) by using the following curl command:

    curl https://YOUR_HTTP_TRIGGER_URL/api/funqyHello

    The output should be the same as what you observed earlier:

    "hello funqy"

    If you want to exercise the basic metrics capability in the Azure portal, try invoking the function within a shell for loop:

    for i in {1..100}; do curl -d '"Dan on Azure"' -X POST https://YOUR_HTTP_TRIGGER_URL/api/greeting; done

    After a while, you'll see some metrics data in the portal.

    Screenshot that shows function metrics in the portal.

Now that you've opened your Azure function in the portal, here are more features that you can access from the portal:

Clean up resources

If you don't need these resources, you can delete them by running the following command in Azure Cloud Shell or on your local terminal:

az group delete --name <yourResourceGroupName> --yes

Next steps

In this article, you learned how to:

  • Run Quarkus dev mode.
  • Deploy a Funqy app to Azure functions by using azure-functions-maven-plugin.
  • Examine the performance of the function in the portal.

To learn more about Azure Functions and Quarkus, see the following articles and references: