Let statement

A let statement is used to set a variable name equal to an expression or a function, or to create views.

let statements are useful for:

  • Breaking up a complex expression into multiple parts, each represented by a variable.
  • Defining constants outside of the query body for readability.
  • Defining a variable once and using it multiple times within a query.

If the variable previously represented another value, for example in nested statements, the innermost let statement applies.

To optimize multiple uses of the let statement within a single query, see Optimize queries that use named expressions.


The let statement binds a name to a calculation, not to the evaluated value of that calculation. This behavior means that multiple references to the same name can return different values due to the calculation being evaluated multiple times. If this is not the desired behavior, use toscalar() or materialize().

Syntax: Scalar or tabular expressions

let Name = Expression


Let statements must be followed by a semicolon. There can be no blank lines between let statements or between let statements and other query statements.

Learn more about syntax conventions.


Name Type Required Description
Name string ✔️ The variable name. You can escape the name with brackets. For example, ["Name with spaces"].
Expression string ✔️ An expression with a scalar or tabular result. For example, an expression with a scalar result would be let one=1;, and an expression with a tabular result would be let RecentLog = Logs | where Timestamp > ago(1h).

Syntax: View or function

let Name = [view] ([ Parameters ]) { FunctionBody }


Let statements must be followed by a semicolon. There can be no blank lines between let statements or between let statements and other query statements.

Learn more about syntax conventions.


Name Type Required Description
FunctionBody string ✔️ An expression that yields a user defined function.
view string Only relevant for a parameter-less let statement. When used, the let statement is included in queries with a union operator with wildcard selection of the tables/views. For an example, see Create a view or virtual table.
Parameters string Zero or more comma-separated tabular or scalar function parameters.

For each parameter of tabular type, the parameter should be in the format TableName:TableSchema, in which TableSchema is either a comma-separated list of columns in the format ColumnName:ColumnType or a wildcard (*). If columns are specified, then the input tabular argument must contain these columns. If a wildcard is specified, then the input tabular argument can have any schema. To reference columns in the function body, they must be specified. For examples, see Tabular argument with schema and Tabular argument with wildcard.

For each parameter of scalar type, provide the parameter name and parameter type in the format Name:Type. The name can appear in the FunctionBody and is bound to a particular value when the user defined function is invoked. The only supported types are bool, string, long, datetime, timespan, real, dynamic, and the aliases to these types.


  • Tabular parameters must appear before scalar parameters.
  • Any two statements must be separated by a semicolon.


Define scalar values

The following example uses a scalar expression statement.

let n = 10;  // number
let place = "Dallas";  // string
let cutoff = ago(62d); // datetime 
| where timestamp > cutoff 
    and city == place 
| take n

The following example binds the name some number using the ['name'] notation, and then uses it in a tabular expression statement.

let ['some number'] = 20;
range y from 0 to ['some number'] step 5

Create a user defined function with scalar calculation

This example uses the let statement with arguments for scalar calculation. The query defines function MultiplyByN for multiplying two numbers.

let MultiplyByN = (val:long, n:long) { val * n };
range x from 1 to 5 step 1 
| extend result = MultiplyByN(x, 5)


x result
1 5
2 10
3 15
4 20
5 25

Create a user defined function that trims input

The following example removes leading and trailing ones from the input.

let TrimOnes = (s:string) { trim("1", s) };
range x from 10 to 15 step 1 
| extend result = TrimOnes(tostring(x))


x result
10 0
12 2
13 3
14 4
15 5

Use multiple let statements

This example defines two let statements where one statement (foo2) uses another (foo1).

let foo1 = (_start:long, _end:long, _step:long) { range x from _start to _end step _step};
let foo2 = (_step:long) { foo1(1, 100, _step)};
foo2(2) | count



Create a view or virtual table

This example shows you how to use a let statement to create a view or virtual table.

let Range10 = view () { range MyColumn from 1 to 10 step 1 };
let Range20 = view () { range MyColumn from 1 to 20 step 1 };
search MyColumn == 5


$table MyColumn
Range10 5
Range20 5

Use a materialize function

The materialize() function lets you cache subquery results during the time of query execution. When you use the materialize() function, the data is cached, and any subsequent invocation of the result uses cached data.

let totalPagesPerDay = PageViews
| summarize by Page, Day = startofday(Timestamp)
| summarize count() by Day;
let materializedScope = PageViews
| summarize by Page, Day = startofday(Timestamp);
let cachedResult = materialize(materializedScope);
| project Page, Day1 = Day
| join kind = inner
    | project Page, Day2 = Day
on Page
| where Day2 > Day1
| summarize count() by Day1, Day2
| join kind = inner
on $left.Day1 == $right.Day
| project Day1, Day2, Percentage = count_*100.0/count_1


Day1 Day2 Percentage
2016-05-01 00:00:00.0000000 2016-05-02 00:00:00.0000000 34.0645725975255
2016-05-01 00:00:00.0000000 2016-05-03 00:00:00.0000000 16.618368960101
2016-05-02 00:00:00.0000000 2016-05-03 00:00:00.0000000 14.6291376489636

Using nested let statements

Nested let statements are permitted, including within a user defined function expression. Let statements and arguments apply in both the current and inner scope of the function body.

let start_time = ago(5h); 
let end_time = start_time + 2h; 
T | where Time > start_time and Time < end_time | ...

Tabular argument with schema

The following example specifies that the table parameter T must have a column State of type string. The table T may include other columns as well, but they can't be referenced in the function StateState because the aren't declared.

let StateState=(T: (State: string)) { T | extend s_s=strcat(State, State) };
| invoke StateState()
| project State, s_s


State s_s
... ...

Tabular argument with wildcard

The table parameter T can have any schema, and the function CountRecordsInTable will work.

let CountRecordsInTable=(T: (*)) { T | count };
StormEvents | invoke CountRecordsInTable()