Query data in Azure Data Explorer using SQL Server emulation

Any library and application that can connect to a Microsoft Azure SQL Database with Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) authentication can also connect to Azure Data Explorer. This functionality is made possible by Azure Data Explorer's TDS-compliant endpoint, which emulates Microsoft SQL Server.

With SQL Server emulation, you can connect to Azure Data Explorer through various methods, including ODBC, JDBC, and common apps like LINQPad and Azure Data Studio.


Azure Data Explorer requires authentication through Azure AD.

To authenticate an application principal, you need to include the tenant ID in the tuning options. For an example, see connect with ODBC.

It's possible to configure the Azure AD tenant ID at the cluster level and remove the need to specify it from the client. To change the tenant ID at the cluster level, open a support request in the Azure portal about configuring SecuritySettings.TdsEndpointDefaultAuthority with the required tenant ID.

Tuning options

For customizing Azure Data Explorer according to your specific requirements, you might need to supply certain information that's not supported by the standard SQL Server connection configuration.

To allow for such parameters, Azure Data Explorer lets you input these values into the TDS Language and Application properties. We recommend to use the Language property when possible.

Supported tuning options

The following table describes the supported tuning options. To learn how to use these options, see the syntax explanation.

Tuning option Description
MaxStringSize The default behavior of Azure Data Explorer is to consider string values as NVARCHAR(MAX). For applications that don't work well with the NVARCHAR(MAX) type, you can cast the data to NVARCHAR(n).
AadAuthority Used to specify the Azure AD tenant ID for authentication.


[ Language | Application ] = ExpectedArguments@TuningOptions


Name Type Required Description
ExpectedArguments string The expected value for the Language or Application field in TDS.
TuningOptions string Zero or more comma-separated supported tuning options. Each tuning option must be in the format of TuningOptionName:TuningOptionValue.


The following example specifies the Azure AD tenant ID in an ODBC connection string using the Language property and the AadAuthority tuning option.

Driver={ODBC Driver 17 for SQL Server};Server=myadxcluster.westeurope.kusto.windows.net;Database=mydatabase;Authentication=ActiveDirectoryServicePrincipal;Language=any@AadAuthority:57B489CD-590C-417F-A8B9-E75D2F9A04C8,MaxStringSize:5000;UID=A9BCAB99-8AAD-4411-A232-37E2116B935E;PWD=mysecret

Next steps