Secure your managed online endpoints with network isolation

APPLIES TO: Azure CLI ml extension v2 (current) Python SDK azure-ai-ml v2 (current)

In this article, you'll use network isolation to secure a managed online endpoint. You'll create a managed online endpoint that uses an Azure Machine Learning workspace's private endpoint for secure inbound communication. You'll also configure the workspace with a managed virtual network that allows only approved outbound communication for deployments. Finally, you'll create a deployment that uses the private endpoints of the workspace's managed virtual network for outbound communication.

For examples that use the legacy method for network isolation, see the deployment files (for deployment using a generic model) and (for deployment using an MLflow model) in the azureml-examples GitHub repo.


  • To use Azure Machine Learning, you must have an Azure subscription. If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a free account before you begin. Try the free or paid version of Azure Machine Learning today.

  • Install and configure the Azure CLI and the ml extension to the Azure CLI. For more information, see Install, set up, and use the CLI (v2).


    Azure Machine Learning managed virtual network was introduced on May 23rd, 2023. If you have an older version of the ml extension, you might need to update it for the examples in this article to work. To update the extension, use the following Azure CLI command:

    az extension update -n ml
  • The CLI examples in this article assume that you're using the Bash (or compatible) shell. For example, from a Linux system or Windows Subsystem for Linux.

  • You must have an Azure Resource Group, in which you (or the service principal you use) need to have Contributor access. You'll have such a resource group if you've configured your ml extension.

  • If you want to use a user-assigned managed identity to create and manage online endpoints and online deployments, the identity should have the proper permissions. For details about the required permissions, see Set up service authentication. For example, you need to assign the proper RBAC permission for Azure Key Vault on the identity.

Migrate from legacy network isolation method to managed virtual network

If you've used the legacy method previously for network isolation of managed online endpoints, and you want to migrate to using a workspace managed virtual network to secure your endpoints, follow these steps:

  1. Delete all computes in your workspace.
  2. Enable managed virtual network for your workspace. For more information on how to configure a managed network for your workspace, see Workspace Managed Virtual Network Isolation.
  3. Configure private endpoints for outbound communication to private resources that your managed online endpoints need to access. These private resources include a storage account, Azure Key Vault, and Azure Container Registry (ACR).
  4. (Optional) If you're integrating with a user registry, configure private endpoints for outbound communication to your registry, its storage account, and its ACR.


  • The v1_legacy_mode flag must be disabled (false) on your Azure Machine Learning workspace. If this flag is enabled, you won't be able to create a managed online endpoint. For more information, see Network isolation with v2 API.

  • If your Azure Machine Learning workspace has a private endpoint that was created before May 24, 2022, you must recreate the workspace's private endpoint before configuring your online endpoints to use a private endpoint. For more information on creating a private endpoint for your workspace, see How to configure a private endpoint for Azure Machine Learning workspace.


    To confirm when a workspace was created, you can check the workspace properties.

    In the Studio, go to the Directory + Subscription + Workspace section (top right of the Studio) and select View all properties in Azure Portal. Select the JSON view from the top right of the "Overview" page, then choose the latest API version. From this page, you can check the value of properties.creationTime.

    Alternatively, use az ml workspace show with CLI, my_ml_client.workspace.get("my-workspace-name") with SDK, or curl on a workspace with REST API.

  • When you use network isolation with online endpoints, you can use workspace-associated resources (Azure Container Registry (ACR), Storage account, Key Vault, and Application Insights) from a different resource group than that of your workspace. However, these resources must belong to the same subscription and tenant as your workspace.


Network isolation described in this article applies to data plane operations, that is, operations that result from scoring requests (or model serving). Control plane operations (such as requests to create, update, delete, or retrieve authentication keys) are sent to the Azure Resource Manager over the public network.

Prepare your system

  1. Create the environment variables used by this example by running the following commands. Replace <YOUR_WORKSPACE_NAME> with the name to use for your workspace. Replace <YOUR_RESOURCEGROUP_NAME> with the resource group that will contain your workspace.


    before creating a new workspace, you must create an Azure Resource Group to contain it. For more information, see Manage Azure Resource Groups.

  2. Create your workspace. The -m allow_only_approved_outbound parameter configures a managed virtual network for the workspace and blocks outbound traffic except to approved destinations.

    az ml workspace create -g $RESOURCEGROUP_NAME -n $WORKSPACE_NAME -m allow_only_approved_outbound

    Alternatively, if you'd like to allow the deployment to send outbound traffic to the internet, uncomment the following code and run it instead.

    # az ml workspace create -g $RESOURCEGROUP_NAME -n $WORKSPACE_NAME -m allow_internet_outbound

    For more information on how to create a new workspace or to upgrade your existing workspace to use a manged virtual network, see Configure a managed virtual network to allow internet outbound.

    When the workspace is configured with a private endpoint, the Azure Container Registry for the workspace must be configured for Premium tier to allow access via the private endpoint. For more information, see Azure Container Registry service tiers. Also, the workspace should be set with the image_build_compute property, as deployment creation involves building of images. See Configure image builds for more.

  3. Configure the defaults for the CLI so that you can avoid passing in the values for your workspace and resource group multiple times.

    az configure --defaults workspace=$WORKSPACE_NAME group=$RESOURCEGROUP_NAME
  4. Clone the examples repository to get the example files for the endpoint and deployment, then go to the repository's /cli directory.

    git clone --depth 1
    cd /cli

The commands in this tutorial are in the file in the cli directory, and the YAML configuration files are in the endpoints/online/managed/sample/ subdirectory.

Create a secured managed online endpoint

To create a secured managed online endpoint, create the endpoint in your workspace and set the endpoint's public_network_access to disabled to control inbound communication. The endpoint will then have to use the workspace's private endpoint for inbound communication.

Because the workspace is configured to have a managed virtual network, any deployments of the endpoint will use the private endpoints of the managed virtual network for outbound communication.

  1. Set the endpoint's name.

  2. Create an endpoint with public_network_access disabled to block inbound traffic.

    az ml online-endpoint create --name $ENDPOINT_NAME -f endpoints/online/managed/sample/endpoint.yml --set public_network_access=disabled

    If you disable public network access for the endpoint, the only way to invoke the endpoint is by using a private endpoint, which can access the workspace, in your virtual network. For more information, see secure inbound scoring requests and configure a private endpoint for an Azure Machine Learning workspace.

    Alternatively, if you'd like to allow the endpoint to receive scoring requests from the internet, uncomment the following code and run it instead.

    # az ml online-endpoint create --name $ENDPOINT_NAME -f endpoints/online/managed/sample/endpoint.yml
  3. Create a deployment in the workspace managed virtual network.

    az ml online-deployment create --name blue --endpoint $ENDPOINT_NAME -f endpoints/online/managed/sample/blue-deployment.yml --all-traffic
  4. Get the status of the deployment.

    az ml online-endpoint show -n $ENDPOINT_NAME
  5. Test the endpoint with a scoring request, using the CLI.

    az ml online-endpoint invoke --name $ENDPOINT_NAME --request-file endpoints/online/model-1/sample-request.json
  6. Get deployment logs.

    az ml online-deployment get-logs --name blue --endpoint $ENDPOINT_NAME
  7. Delete the endpoint if you no longer need it.

    az ml online-endpoint delete --name $ENDPOINT_NAME --yes --no-wait
  8. Delete all the resources created in this article. Replace <resource-group-name> with the name of the resource group used in this example:

    az group delete --resource-group <resource-group-name>


Online endpoint creation fails with a V1LegacyMode == true message

The Azure Machine Learning workspace can be configured for v1_legacy_mode, which disables v2 APIs. Managed online endpoints are a feature of the v2 API platform, and won't work if v1_legacy_mode is enabled for the workspace.


Check with your network security team before disabling v1_legacy_mode. It may have been enabled by your network security team for a reason.

For information on how to disable v1_legacy_mode, see Network isolation with v2.

Online endpoint creation with key-based authentication fails

Use the following command to list the network rules of the Azure Key Vault for your workspace. Replace <keyvault-name> with the name of your key vault:

az keyvault network-rule list -n <keyvault-name>

The response for this command is similar to the following JSON document:

    "bypass": "AzureServices",
    "defaultAction": "Deny",
    "ipRules": [],
    "virtualNetworkRules": []

If the value of bypass isn't AzureServices, use the guidance in the Configure key vault network settings to set it to AzureServices.

Online deployments fail with an image download error


This issue applies when you use the legacy network isolation method for managed online endpoints, in which Azure Machine Learning creates a managed virtual network for each deployment under an endpoint.

  1. Check if the egress-public-network-access flag is disabled for the deployment. If this flag is enabled, and the visibility of the container registry is private, then this failure is expected.

  2. Use the following command to check the status of the private endpoint connection. Replace <registry-name> with the name of the Azure Container Registry for your workspace:

    az acr private-endpoint-connection list -r <registry-name> --query "[?privateLinkServiceConnectionState.description=='Egress for Microsoft.MachineLearningServices/workspaces/onlineEndpoints'].{Name:name, status:privateLinkServiceConnectionState.status}"

    In the response document, verify that the status field is set to Approved. If it isn't approved, use the following command to approve it. Replace <private-endpoint-name> with the name returned from the previous command:

    az network private-endpoint-connection approve -n <private-endpoint-name>

Scoring endpoint can't be resolved

  1. Verify that the client issuing the scoring request is a virtual network that can access the Azure Machine Learning workspace.

  2. Use the nslookup command on the endpoint hostname to retrieve the IP address information:


    The response contains an address. This address should be in the range provided by the virtual network


    For Kubernetes online endpoint, the endpoint hostname should be the CName (domain name) which has been specified in your Kubernetes cluster. If it is an HTTP endpoint, the IP address will be contained in the endpoint URI which you can get directly in the Studio UI. More ways to get the IP address of the endpoint can be found in Secure Kubernetes online endpoint.

  3. If the host name isn't resolved by the nslookup command:

    For Managed online endpoint,

    1. Check if an A record exists in the private DNS zone for the virtual network.

      To check the records, use the following command:

      az network private-dns record-set list -z -o tsv --query [].name

      The results should contain an entry that is similar to *.<GUID>.inference.<region>.

    2. If no inference value is returned, delete the private endpoint for the workspace and then recreate it. For more information, see How to configure a private endpoint.

    3. If the workspace with a private endpoint is setup using a custom DNS How to use your workspace with a custom DNS server, use following command to verify if resolution works correctly from custom DNS.


    For Kubernetes online endpoint,

    1. Check the DNS configuration in Kubernetes cluster.

    2. Additionally, you can check if the azureml-fe works as expected, use the following command:

      kubectl exec -it deploy/azureml-fe -- /bin/bash
      (Run in azureml-fe pod)
      curl -vi -k https://localhost:<port>/api/v1/endpoint/<endpoint-name>/swagger.json
      "Swagger not found"

      For HTTP, use

      curl https://localhost:<port>/api/v1/endpoint/<endpoint-name>/swagger.json
      "Swagger not found"

    If curl HTTPs fails (e.g. timeout) but HTTP works, please check that certificate is valid.

    If this fails to resolve to A record, verify if the resolution works from Azure DNS(

    dig @

    If this succeeds then you can troubleshoot conditional forwarder for private link on custom DNS.

Online deployments can't be scored

  1. Use the following command to see if the deployment was successfully deployed:

    az ml online-deployment show -e <endpointname> -n <deploymentname> --query '{name:name,state:provisioning_state}' 

    If the deployment completed successfully, the value of state will be Succeeded.

  2. If the deployment was successful, use the following command to check that traffic is assigned to the deployment. Replace <endpointname> with the name of your endpoint:

    az ml online-endpoint show -n <endpointname>  --query traffic


    This step isn't needed if you are using the azureml-model-deployment header in your request to target this deployment.

    The response from this command should list percentage of traffic assigned to deployments.

  3. If the traffic assignments (or deployment header) are set correctly, use the following command to get the logs for the endpoint. Replace <endpointname> with the name of the endpoint, and <deploymentname> with the deployment:

    az ml online-deployment get-logs  -e <endpointname> -n <deploymentname> 

    Look through the logs to see if there's a problem running the scoring code when you submit a request to the deployment.

Next steps